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83 Cards in this Set

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What muscle caudolateral muscle on pelvic limb, originates from ishiatic tuberosity, inserts at patella, tibial tuberosity, and calcaneous (not ******** you, it does)?

What is action of this muscle?
Biceps femuris m: caudolateral muscle on pelvic limb, originates from ishiatic tuberosity, inserts at patella, tibial tuberosity

Extends hip, stifle & tarsus, flex stifile
What nerveS innervate biceps femoris?
ca.gluteal n. & ischiatic n.
What nerve innervates both the semiMembranossus and semitendinosus muscles?

What is action of these muscles?
ischiatic nerve (also known as sciatic nerve)

flex stifle

(note: the "M" in semiMembranossus stands for medial. also if u put in between your fingers, makes an M b/c it has two parts)
What large rump muscle inserts inserts on greater trochanter of femur?

What innervates it?
middle gluteal muscle

CRANIAL gluteal n.
What fan-shaped muscle deep to middle gluteal m. extends from hip (ilium and ischium) to stifle?

Action of muscle?
Deep gluteal muscle

ABDUCT LIMB, extend hip

Cranial gluteal nerve
What large lymph node is located in hamstring region (caudal to stifle)?

in popliteal region; at near insertion of semitendinosus muscle.
What strong ligament extends BETWEEN caudal sacrum and 1st caudal vertebra (yes that's first vertebrae after sacral v.) TO ischiatic tuberosity in the DOG only?

What MUSCLE arises from it?

superf.gluteal, biceps femoris, and caudal crural abductor m., arise from it (and ischiatic tuberosity)
What is caudal part of pelvis called?
ischium (ischiatic tuberosity)
What is cranial part of ilium called?

(if you want to get technical, it is combination of cranial and caudal ventral iliac spine)
Tuber coxae

(iliac crest also here)
Name 3 muscles that originate from pelvis and adduct pelvic limb?

Which is the most superficial?

What nerve innervates them?

gracilis m.
pectineus m.
adductor m.

- all are medial side of limb
- gracilis m. is large flat muscle that covers other 2
- all are innervated by obdurator nerve!
What nerve, when inactivated, causes lateral slippage of limb?
obdurator nerve

travels through obdurator foramen, between pubis and ischium
Where does head of femur insert?

What KIND of joint is this?

What atttaches them?
Acetabulm! (lunate surface)

Ball & socket, synovial
Supporting structures:
Acetabular lip, transverse acetabular lig.,femoral head lig., muscles of close pelvic association & joint capsule
space between pelvic inlet & outlet
Pelvic Canal
another name for hip joint

what is correct name for dislocation of hip?
coxofemoral or coxal joint

hip dysplasia
Where does ligament of head of femur attach?
acetabular fossa
What kind of joints can be found in tarsus?
- Tarsocrural joint (synovial)
- Proximal intertarsal joint (synovial)
- Distal intertarsal joint (synovial)
- Tarsometatarsal joint (synovial)
2 story bone on tarsus?

What side is it on?
Tarsal Bone 4!

Two most proximal bones of tarsus
talus (medial) and calcaneus (lateral)
What region contains tarus, metatarsus, and digits?
What is palpable prominence of lateral wing of ilium?

Common name?
tuber coxae

point of hip
What is the junction of the right and left os coxae?
Pelvic symphysis
What medial (medialdorsal) process of the wing of the ilium is next to the sacrum?
Tuber sacrale/ sacral tuberosity
What is the caudal indentation between the ischiatic tuberosities?
Ischiatic arch
The patella articulates with the ____surface of the femur
Trochlear (patellar surface of trochlea)

This is groove of cranial (distal) side of femur; provides a gliding surface for the patella.
What is the large proximocranial process of the tibia where the patellar ligaments attach?

What muscle inserts here?
Tibial tuberosity

quadriceps femoris m., bicep femoris m., semitendinosus, semimembranus
What are the two sesamoid bones in the heads of the gastrocnemius?
Medial and lateral sesamoids (fabellae) of the gastrocnemius muscle
What part of the tibia articulates with the talus (tibial tarsal bone)?
Distal articular surface (cochlea)
Which is the more lateral bone of the crus?
List the bones of the hock and which rows they are in
* Proximal row: talus and calcaneus (heel bone)
* Middle row: central & 4th (2 story bone)
* Distal row: numbered bones 1-4
Which collateral ligament attaches to a meniscus?
Medial collateral ligament
What are the fibrocartilaginous discs between the condyles of the femur and tibia?
Medial and lateral menisci
What is the function of the iliopsoas m.?
Major flexor of the hip
What are extensors of the stifle and what innervates them?
1. Cranial thigh (quadriceps) muscles

More specifically: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis,
as well as fibularis tertius, long digital extensor, and biceps femoris

2. femoral n.
What is the action and innervation of the medial thigh muscles?
Adduction, obturator n. (gracilis, pectineus, adductor)

What composite tendon inserts on the calcaneus?
What are its main components?
* Common calcanean tendon
* -SDF and gastrocnemius
What artery is a direct continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abdominal cavity to supply the pelvic limb?
Femoral a.
What is the distal continuation of the femoral artery caudal to the stifle?
Popliteal a.
What is a digital artery on the side of the digit facing the axis?
One facing away from the axis?
Axial digital artery; abaxial digital artery
List the superficial veins of the pelvic limb
Medial and lateral saphenous veins
What innervates gluteal muscles?
gluteal nn.
What innervates caudal thigh muscles?
Ischiatic n.
What innervates caudal crural muscles and sensory to PLANTAR paw?
Tibial n.
What innervates craniolateral crus and sensory to DORSAL paw?
Common fibular n.
What innervates iliopsoas, quadriceps muscles?
Femoral n.
What innervates sartorius and sensory to medial skin (including medial stifle)?
Saphenous n.
What nerve allows extension of the rear limb digits?
Common fibular
What nerve is required to bear weight on the pelvic limb?
Femoral n. (L4-6) extends the stifle
How is a dog placed for hip dysplasia view?
Dorsal recumbency, limbs pulled caudally
How do you check for rotation of the pelvis in hip dysplasia view (radiograph)?
Compare symmetry of obturator foramen and sacroiliac joints
What radiographic findings of hip dysplasia comes first to mind?
<50% of femoral head inside dorsal rim of acetabulum
What is required to evaluate coxofemoral luxation radiographically?
Requires 2 views to ascertain direction of luxation (craniodorsal most common)
What are the 4 sesamoid bones that should not be mistaken for fracture fragments in radiographs of the stifle joint?
Patella, 2 sesamoids of gastrocnemius muscle, and sesamoid in the popliteal tendon
How does an animal with hypertrophic osteodystrophy present?

What are the classical radiographic signs of hypertrophic osteodystrophy?
Young dog, swelling around the metaphyseal region of long bones of limbs, fever, and lameness

Bone cuffing around the metaphyseal region and double physes

Periosteal proliferation around the diaphyses of affected bones
What is hypertrophic osteopathy?
Lamellar periosteal proliferation on long bones of extremities associated with space occupying lesion of thorax causing lameness and pain
Where is fibula located on pelvic limb? (just give a direction)
Strongest EXTENSOR of the Coxal Joint?
Middle gluteal m.
Identify this bony prominence
Lateral malleolus of fibula
Identify large muscle shown hhere
vastus lateralis (also known as quadriceps femoris)
intercondylar fossa on caudal side of (distal) femur, in between medial and lateral condyles

(this is where cruciate ligaments are found apparently)
What is large superficial muscle on caudal-medial thigh?
gracilis m.
What is large superficial muscle on lateral (caudal-lateral) side of thigh?
Biceps femoris m.
What is large superficial muscle muscle on craniolateral side of thigh?
Tensor fascia lata m. over quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris m and vastus lateralis m.)
What large superficial muscle on craniomedial side of thigh?
Sartorius muscle
What pelvic muscle on craniomedial side has two heads?

sartorius m.

*more cranial then anything
* large, flat, superficial
* originates from iliac crest
* inserts on tibial tuberosity
* innervated by saphenous nerve (of femoral n.)
Name 5 muscles that flex the stifle
Biceps femoris,
semitendiosus, flexor,
where does biceps femoris insert?
inserts at patella, tibial tuberosity, and calcaneous (not ******** you, it does)
What innervates flexors of digits?
tibial nerves
What innervates flexors of stifle?
mostly sciatic n. (semit, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris)

and tibial n. for gastrocnemius and popliteus m.
tibial nerve goes between what muscle heads in pelvis crus?

it innervates?
between the heads of the gastrocnemius m.

Innervates hock extensors & digit flexors
Clinical: Hock flexed even when walking. Limb bears weight
What are clinical signs if peroneal (common fibular nerve) is knocked out?
Knuckling over, but can bear weight

remember it goes to dorsal pes,
saphenous nerve splits off from _______ on _________ side of pelvic limb.
femoral nerve; medial (craniomedial)
saphenous nerve innervates
sartorius m.
Femoral Triangle boundaries
Sartorius m.
- Pectineus m.
Inguinal lig.
Name branches leading to Cranial Tibial a. (and then Dorsal Pedal a.)
femoral a. > popliteal a.

Dorsal Pedal a. feeds Long digital extensor m.?
Venipuncture in hindlimb for dogs done in?

Venipuncture in hindlimb in cats?
Lateral saphenous v.

Med. Saphenous V.
calcaneous is on what side?
major weight bearing bone of tarsus, located on medial side of proximal row
talus bone
groove on tarsal canal (axial on calcaneous) over which deep digital flexor tendon crosses
sustentaculum tali
pulley-like process on talus bone?

what does it articulate with?
trochlea (of talus); cochlea of tibia
most cranial muscle of crus (lower leg)

hint: flex tarsocrural joint
cranial tibial m.
list extensor muscles (front) of crus - from cranial to caudal

what innervates them?
1. cranial tibial
2. long digital extensor m.
3. fibularis m.
(4. lateral digital extensor - deep)

~innervated by common fibular n.
vertically oriented ligaments on side of stifle?
lateral & medial collatoral ligaments
superiormost portion of the sacrum. It marks part of the border of the pelvic inlet
sacral promontory