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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cerebrum is the ______ part of the brain, has _____ hemispheres, seperated by ______.
Largest, 2 hemispheres, longitudinal fissure
The Falx Cerebri of the brain helps avoid ______.
rotary displacement
The cereral cortex contains ______.
gray matter (cell bodies f neurons)
The semioval center contains ______.
white matter (cellular processes, axon, dendrites)
The corpus callosum connects _______ & is made of ________.
2 cerebral hemispheres, white matter
The convolution of the brain are called _____ & the grooves of the brain are called _____.
gyri, sulci
What are the 5 lobes in each hemisphere?
Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Insula
The primary motor cortex of the brain is the _______, which controls _________ muscles activity to the ________ side of the body
Precentral Gyrus, skeletal (voluntary), contralateral
The primary somatosensory cortex is the _________, which allows you to discriminate general _______ from the _________ side of the body.
Postcentral gyrus, sensations, contralateral
The Wervicke's Area, aka _____________, is the primary ______ cortex.
Post. Aspect of Superior Temporal Gyrus, language
The Broca's Area, aka ____________, is the primary __________ area.
Post. Area of Frontal Area, motor speech area
The Broca's area receieves info from ___________, then coordinates it, then sends it to the __________.
Wervicke's Area, Precentral Gyrus
Most people are dominant in the _____ hemisphere.
The anterior 1/5 of the frontal lobes functions for _______ & _______.
cognition & personality
The posterior part of the occipital lobe is the primary _____ cortex, where _____ are recieved.
visual, images
The superior temporal gyrus is the __________ cortex, where __________ is perceived.
Auditory, sound
The memory/learning areas of the are __________ complex & the __________.
Amygdaloid Nuclear Complex & Hippocampus
Basal Ganglia are masses of _________ located deep within the ___________.
gray matter, cerebral hemispheres
T/F: Basil ganglia are called ganglia because they are collections of cell bodies outside the CNS?
FALSE! They're actually nuclei within the CNS. (Confusing, right?)
A nulceus is a collection of ___________.
cell bodies INSIDE the CNS
A ganglia is a collection of ________.
Cell bodies OUTSIDE the CNS
What are the 3 groups of basal ganglia?
Corpus Striatum, Claustrum, & Amygdaloid nuclear complex
The corpus striatum is involved with the ___________ system, which is made up of _____ _____ areas.
extrapyramidal system (EPS), subcortical motor areas
Damaging your EPS can result in what? (3)
1. Dyskinesia (abnormal invol. movement)
2. Static tremor
3. Abnormality of muscle tone (rigidityor skeletal mm)
The claustrum is deep to the _____.
All of Basal Ganglia's function lies within what group?
The Corpus Striatum
The EPS is responsible for ______ ______ ______ activity.
instinctive voluntary motor activity (like reflexes)
The parametal system is made up of _____ areas.
Cortical areas
Rhinencephalon (hindbrain) is involved with what systems? (2)
Olfactory & limbic
The olfactory nerve is an outgrowth of the _________.
The limbic system coordinates _______ & the ________ associated with them.
emotions & physical expression
The limbic system includes ________ & ________.
hippocampus & parahippocampal gyrus
The _____ is a medial projection of parahippocampal gyrus
The thalamus is a ______ collection of _____ that surrounds the ____ ventricle.
bilateral, nuclei (gray matter), 3rd
What does the interthalamic lesion do?
Connects right & left side of thalamus
The ________ is the primary sensory relay station of the brain. What 3 types of nerves meet here?
Thalamus; Cranial, Spinal, & ANS (splanchnic) nerves meet here
The sense of ____ bypasses the thalamus and goes directly to the ______ for interpretation.
smell; rhinencephalon
The diencephalon is the ____ vesicle of the brain.
The ________ seperates the hypothalamus from the thalamus.
hypothalimic sulcus
The hypothalamus forms the _____ of the diencephalon & lateral wall of the ____ ventricle.
floor, 3rd
The hypothalamus is connected to the pituitary gland via the ____________.
The hypothalamus is divided into what anatomical regions? (4)
1.) Supraoptic region (anterior portion)
2.)Preoptic region (medial portion)
3.) Tuberal portion (middle portion)
4.) Mammillary portion (posterior portion)
The pituitary is also called the _______, and is influenced by the ________.
hypophsis, hypothalamus
The ___________ has control of both the sympathetic & parasympathetic ANS.
The hypophysis is located in the ______ & protected by the ________.
hypopyseal fossa, sella turcica (of the sphenoid bone)
What are the 2 lobes of the hypophysis?
Adenophypophysis (anterior lobe) & Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)
The adenohypophysis is under _____ control, while the neurohypophysis is under _____ control.
chemical, neurological
RELEASING FACTORS are synthesized in the ______ & HORMONES are synthesized in the _______.
Adenohypophysis, Neurohypophysis
Hormones are ______ in the neurohypophysis and then released by the _____ that synthesized the hormone.
stored, neurons
What 2 hormones are released by the posterior hypophysis & what do they do?
1.) Vassopression (ADH)--prevents excessive urination
2.) Oxytocin -- causes smooth muscles of uterus to contract
What is the most posterior part of the diencephalon & contains the pineal body?
Where is the pineal body located?
Between 2 superior colliculi (of midbrain)
The epithalamus forms the roof of the ___ (#) ventricle and produces the hormone _____. .
3rd ventricle, melatonin
Melatonin determines ________ & influences _________.
onset of puberty, circadian rhythms
The subthalamus lies _____ to the thalamus and is involved with ________ system.
ventral, extrapyramidal (motor cordination)
A _____ can cause damage to the subthalamus. This can produce hemiballism, which is _________.
stroke, involuntary movement of extremities
The optic nerve is actually a ____, or outgrowth of the _____.
tract, diencephalon
The midbrain has 2 major parts: _____ & _____.
Tectum (aka quadrigeminal plate) & Cerebral peduncles
The tectum inclues rounded bodies, called _____.
There are __ superior collicul. They function to relay nuclei in the _____ pathway. There are aslo __ inferior collicul. They function to relay nuclei in the ____ pathway.
2, visual
2, auditory
There are __ inferior colliculi. They function to relay nuclei in the _____ pathway.
2, auditory
The ventral aspect of the midbrain is the ____. The dorsal aspect of the midbrain is the____.
cerebral peduncles, tectum
The cerebral peduncles are divided into what 2 parts?
1.) Tegmentum (most dorsal)
2.) Crus Cerebri (most ventral)
The tegmentum is ____ mater that forms the floor of the __ (#) ventricle.
grey, 4th ventricle
The tegementum is involved with: 1) _____ relay pathway, 2) motor & sensory nuclei associated w/ cranial nerves ___ & ___, & 3) ______ activating system (alertness).
1.) sensory relay pathways
2.) cranial nerves III & IV
3.) reticular activating system
The crus cerebri contains ___________ fibers (upper motor neurons) & is ______ in nature.
corticofungal fibers, efferent (motor fibers are leaving brain)
The substantia nigra seperates the _____ & _____, and is part of the _____ system.
tegmetum & crus cerebri, extrapyramedal system
The substantia nigra produces the neurotransmitter _____, and damage of this can result in ________ disease.
dopamine, Parkinson's
The hindbrain is also called the ___________. It includes what 2 major structures?
1.)Metencephalon (includes cerebellum & pons)
2.)Myelencephalon (includes medulla oblongota)
The cerebellum is ____ to the cranial fossa, pons, & medulla.
The _____ connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum.
The superior, middle, & inferior cerebellar peduncles are attached to what part of the brainstem?
The peduncles function as a mean by which afferent (& efferent) information can go into (and out of) the
The cerebellum functions to _____ somatic motor activitiy & maintain ______ & _____.
coordinate (NOT initiate), equilibrium/balance & muslce tone
T/F: If you damage the cerebellum, you will be paralyzed.
FALSE, you will just lose muscle tone and coordination
The pons is located ____ to the cerebellum and _____ to the medulla.
ventral to cerebellum & superior to medulla
The pons is involved with motor & sensory nuclei of what 4 cranial nerves?
C5, 6, 7, & 8
The ____ is the sleep center & secondary respiratory center.
The medulla oblongata is shaped like a _______ & is part of the __________ of the hindbrain.
pyramid, myelencephalon
The medulla oblongata contains sensory & motor nuclei of what 4 cranial nerves?
CN 9, 10, 11, & 12
The medulla oblongata is involved with what physiologic functions?
visceral (swallowing) reflex, vomiting, primary respiratroy center, cardiovascular reflexes
The breast is what type of gland?
What is polythelia?
multiple nipples
Breasts function to _______ and are controlled by the _______.
nourish newborns, hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is the anterior lobe of the ______. It's an _______ gland that produces ________.
pituitary, endocrine, prolactin
The breast is basically a modifide ______.
sweat gland
The largest, visible part of the breast that produces milk is called the _________.
copus mammae
The corpus mammae contains suspensory ligaments between ____ tissue and ______ ducts that convey milk to underside of nipple.
adipose tissue, lactiferous ducts
The _________ tail pierces deep fasica and enters the axilla.
Where are the lactiferous ducts located?
The sebaceous ligaments of cooper are responsible for ______.
supporting the breasts
The medial side of the breast receives arterial blood from the _________ artery & the lateral side receives arterial blood from the ______ artery.
Anterior intercostal aa. (branch of internal thoracic aa)
Lateral thoracic aa. (branch of thoracic aa)
The brachial plexus of the upper extremeity originiates in the _______.
posterior triangle of the neck
The bracial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of what 5 cranial nerves?
C5, C6, C7, C8, T1
The brachial plexus produces roots, ______, divisions, cords, & ______.
trunks, nerves
The roots, trunks, & division of the brachial plexus are found in the ______ triangle of the _____.
posterior neck
Most nerves of the brachial plexus originiate in the _____.
What 2 nerves come off the roots of the bracial plexus?
1.) Dorsal scapular nerve
2.) Long thoracic nerve
The dorsal scapular nerve is a product of cranial nerve #__ & innervates what 3 muscles?
C5, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, & levator scapulae
The long thoracic nerve is a product of what 3 cranial nerves?
C5, C6, C7
The long thoracic nerve innervates the ______ muscle.
serratus anterior
The phrenic nerve innervates the ____ & is a product of what cranial nerves?
diaphragm, C3-5
T/F: The phrenic nerve is a product of the brachial plexus.
False, tho it is in the same general vicinity
T/F: The phrenic nerve is a product of the cranial nerves C3-5.
There are ___ major trunks. All of them bifurcate to form anterior & posterior ______.
3 (sup, mid, inf), divisions
The superior trunk is a product of cranial nerves __ & __.
C5 & 6
Only 1 of the 3 trunks produces nerves, the ____ trunk.
The superior trunk produces the ____ nerve & the ____ nerve.
subclavis nerve & suprascapular nerve
The subclavis nerve innervates _____ & the suprascapular nerve innervates _____ & _____.
subclavius, supraspinatus & infraspinatus
The middle trunk is a product of cranial nerve __ & the inferior nerve is a product of cranial nerves __ & __.
C7, C8 & T1
T/F: There are 3 nerves that come off the divisions.
False! NO nerves come off the divisions
____ are products of anterior & posterior divisions of trunks.
The 3 cords are ____, ____, & ____.
lateral, medial, & posterior cords
The lateral cord is a product of the anterior divisions of the _____ & _____ trunks
superior & middle
The 2 nerves that are produced by the lateral cord are the ____ nerve & ____ nerve.
lateral pectoral n & musculocutaneous n
The lateral pectoral nerve (of the lateral cord) innervates the _______ muscle.
pectoralis major muscle
The musculocutaneous nerve (of the lateral cord) innervates the 3 flexors in the compartment of the arm: ____, ____, & ____.
1.) Biceps brachii
2.) Brachialis mm
3.) Carobrachialis mm
The musculocutaneous nerve becomes the _______ nerve at the elbow.
lateral cutaneous nerve
The medial cord is an anterior division of the ____ trunk & contribues to the _____ nerve.
inferior, median nerve
The median nerve is produced from both the ___ cord & the ____ cord.
lateral & medial cords
The median nerve descends the arm laterally to the _____ artery.
The median nerve passes deep to the _____ aponeurosis in the cubital fossa.
T/F: The median nerve has no branches in the axilla or arm.
The median nerve innervates most skeletal muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm except ___ ___ ___ & medial 1/2 of ___ ___ ___.
flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundis
The median nerve becomes the recurrent branch of median nerve as it enters the ____.
The recurrent branch of the median nerve innervates what 3 thenar eminence muscles? Anything else?
1.) Abductor pollicis brevis
2.) Flexor pollicis brevis
3.) Oppens pollicis

Also innervated the first 2 lumbricals, but NOT the adductor pollicis!
Palmar sensory innervation of the median nerve includes the ____ palmar skin, skin of the ____, index & middle finger, & ____ 1/2 of ring finger.
lateral, thumb, lateral
Dorsal sensory innervation of median nerve includes the skin of the ___ portion of the index, middle, lateral 1/2 of the ring finger, & the ____.
distal, thumb
The medial pectoral nerve innervates the ____ ____ & ____ muscles.
pectoralis major & minor mm
The medial cutaneous nerve of the arm innervates the medial side of the ___ for general sensation.
The medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm innervates the medial side of the _____ for general sensation.
The ulnar nerve comes off the ____ cord & decends anterior to the _____ muscle.
medial cord, triceps muscle
The ulnar nerve innvervates what muscles of the arm?
None! It only innvervates 2 muscles in the forearm!
The ulnar nerve innervates what muscles of the forearm?
Medial 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundis & flexor carpi ulnaris
The ulnar nerve branches deeply to innervate all the muscles of the ecxcept ____ _____ & 2 lateral ____.
thenar eminence, 2 lateral lumbrical
The ulnar nerve branches superficially to innervate the ____ & ____ surfaces of the hand.
palmar & dorsal (both encompass little finger, medial 1/2 ring finger, medial palm/hand)
The posteror cord results from the fusion of the superior, middle, & inferior ____.
The posterior cord divides into what 5 nerves?
upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve, thoracodorsal nerve, axillary nerve, & radial nerve
The upper subscapular nerve innervates ____ mm & the lower subscapular nerve innervates the ____ mm & ____ mm.
Upper: subscapularis mm
Lower: subscapularis mm & teres major
The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the ____ ____ mm.
latissimus dorsi
The axillary nerve innervates the ___ mm the ___ ___ mm.
deltoid & teres minor
T/F: The radial nerve is the largest nerve of the brachial plexus.
The radial nerve runs medial to the humerus, following the course of the ___ ____ artery.
profunda brachii a
The radial nerve innervates the ____ ____ muscle in the posterior compartment.
triceps brachii
The radial nerve splits into deep & superficial branches at the level of the lateral _____ ______.
humeral epicondyle
T/F: The superficial branches are smaller than the deep branches of the radial nerve.
The dorsal innervation of the superficial branches of the radial nerve include: the lateral/dorsal aspect of the hand, the dorsum of the ____, proximal/dorsal portion of the ____ & ____ fingers, & lateral 1/3 of the ____ finger.
thumb, index, middle, ring
The deep branches of the randial nerve innervate all the muscles in the _____ & ____ compartments of the forearm.
posterior & lateral