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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
Study of the structure.
Physiology
Study of the functions of the body.
Gross Anatomy
Study of larger body structures.
Regional Anatomy
Study of all the structures in one particular region.
Systemic Anatomy
Study of the body system by system.
Surface Anatomy
Study of internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
Microscopic Anatomy
Study of structures too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope.
Cytology
Study of the cells.
Histology
Study of tissues.
Developmental Anatomy
Study of changes in an individual from conception thru old age.
Embryology
Study of the developmental changes that occur before birth.
Pathological Anatomy
Study of structural changes caused by disease.
Radiographic Anatomy
Study of internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
Molecular Anatomy
The study of the structure of biological molecules.
Renal Physiology
Study of urine production and kidney function.
Neurophysiology
Study of workings of the nervous system.
Cardiovascular Physiology
Study of the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
Chemical Level
Level at which atoms combine to form molecules.
Cellular Level
Level at which cells are made up of molecules.
Tissue Level
Level that consists of similar types of cells.
Organ Level
Level that is made up of different types of tissues.
Organ System Level
Level that consists of different organs that work together closely.
Organismal Level
Level at which organisms are made up of many organ systems.
Integumentary System
System that forms the external body covering.
Skeletal System
System that protects and supports body organs.
Muscular System
System that allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expressions.
Nervous System
System that is the fast-acting control system of the body.
Endocrine System
System in which glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells.
Cardiovascular System
System in which blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes.
Lymphatic System
System that picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.
Respiratory System
System that keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Digestive System
System that breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
Urinary System
System that eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.
Male Reproductive System
System in which the testes produce sperm and male sex horomones.
Female Reproductive System
System in which ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones.
Maintaining Boundaries
Internal environment remains distinct from the external environment.
Movement
Activities promoted by the muscular system.
Responsiveness
Ability to sense changes in the environment.
Digestion
Breaking down ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules.
Metabolism
Sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
Excretion
Removing wastes from the body.
Reproduction
Original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells.
Growth
Increase in size.
Nutrients
Chemical substances used for energy and cell-building.
Oxygen
Needed for maximum ATP production.
Normal Body Temperature
98.6 F
Atmospheric Pressure
Force that air exerts on the surface of the body.(Gas Exchange).
Homeostasis
Body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously.
Homeostatic Imbalance
Body is unable to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously.
Variable
Factor or event being regulated.
Receptor
Sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes.
Control Center
Determines the set point at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the input it receives, and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.
Effector
Provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus.
Negative Feedback Mechanism
Shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Positive Feedback Mechanism
Exaggerates the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated.
Anatomical Position
Feet together but not touching. Palms forward and thumbs facing away from the body.
Directional Terms
Allow us to explain exactly where one body part or structure is in relation to another.
Superior
Above.
Inferior
Below.
Anterior
In front of.
Posterior
Behind.
Medial
On the inner side of.
Lateral
On the outer side of.
Intermediate
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Superficial
Toward or at the body surface.
Deep
More internal.
Axial Part
Includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular Part
Consists of the limbs which are attached to the body's axis.
Sagittal Plane
Vertical plane that divides the body into left and right parts.
Midsagittal Plane
Plane that lies exactly in the mid-line.
Parasagittal Plane
Plane that is offset from the midline.
Frontal Plane
Divides the body into anterior and posterior regions.
Transverse Plane
Plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Dorsal Body Cavity
Contains the area in which the brain is encased by the skull and the cavity which runs within the bony vertebral column and encloses the delicate spinal cord.
Cranial Cavity
Brain and Skull.
Viscera
Internal Organs.
Thoracic
Superior portion.
Abdominal Cavity
Includes spleen.
Serous Fluid
Thin, lubricating fluid which is secreted by both membranes.
Serous
Thin, double layer membrane.
Parietal Serosa
Lines cavity walls.
Visceral Serosa
Lines the organs.
Oral Cavity
Includes the mouth, which contains teeth and the tongue.
Digestive Cavity
Includes the digestive organs and the opening of the anus.
Nasal Cavity
Located within the nose.
Orbital Cavity
Houses the eyes.
Middle Ear Cavity
Contains small bones that transmit sound vibrations.
Synovial Cavity
Includes part of the joints which secretes a lubricating fluid which reduces friction.
Umbilical
Centermost Region.
Epigastric
Above Stomach.
Hypogastric
Below the navel.
Right and Left Iliac
Lateral to the hypogastric region.
Right and Left Lumbar
Lateral to the navel.
Right and Left Hypochondriac
Lateral to the epigastric region.
Right Upper Quadrant
RUQ
Left Upper Quadrant
LUQ
Right Lower Quadrant
RLQ
Left Lower Quadrant
LLQ
Nasal
Nose
Oral
Mouth
Cervical
Neck
Acromial
Point of shoulder
Axillary
Armpit
Abdominal
Abdomen
Brachial
Arm
Pelvic
Pelvis
Carpal
Wrist
Pollex
Thumb
Digital
Fingers and Toes
Patellar
Anterior Knee
Pedal
Foot
Tarsal
Ankle
Frontal
Forehead
Orbital
Eye
Sternal
Breastbone
Thoracic
Chest
Mammary
Breast
Umbilical
Navel
Coxal
Hip
Inguinal
Groin
Femoral
Thigh
Hallux
Big Toe
Cephalic
Head
Otic
Ear
Occipital
Back of head or base of skull
Vertebral
Spinal Column
Scapular
Shoulder Blade
Dorsum
Back
Lumbar
Loin
Sacral
Between hips
Gluteal
Buttock
Popliteal
Back of knee
Calcaneal
Heel
Plantar
Sole