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431 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
“ana-” = __, “-tomy” = _____
Science of_______
up, process of cutting
Science of body structure
Physiology
“physio-” = ___, “-logy” = ___
Science of _______
nature, study of
Science of body function
6 Levels of Body Organization
1. Chemical:
2. Cellular:
3. Tissue:
4. Organ:
5. System:
6. Organism:
Chemical:
atom, molecule, macromolecule
Cellular:
organelle, cell (basic unit of life)
Tissue:
group of cells, surrounding material
Organ:
group of tissues w/ common function
System:
group of organs w/ common function
Organism:
contains all systems in the body
Ways to Study Anatomy:
Observational
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy
--Surface
--Regional
--Systemic
--Developmental
Microscopic anatomy
--Cytology
--Histology
Ways to Study Physiology
Scientific method
--Observation
--Hypothesis
--Experiment
--Conclusion
Types of Physiology
“Levels” (cell vs. organ vs. system) physiology
Pathological physiology
Developmental physiology
6 Life Processes: What Makes Something “Alive”?
Metabolism:
Responsiveness:
Movement:
Growth:
Differentiation:
Reproduction:
Reproduction:
formation of new cells for growth/repair/replacement or production of new individual
Differentiation:
unspecialized cells yield specialized
Growth:
increase in body size due to increase in size of existing cells, # of cells, or amount of surrounding material
Movement:
motion of whole body, organs, cells
Responsiveness:
ability to detect & respond to changes in internal or external environment
Metabolism:
all chemical processes in the body
Homeostasis
“Homeo-” = ___, “-stasis” = ___
same, standing still
Homeostasis: Process of maintaining stable internal environment in the face of…
1. changes in external environment as a result of interacting with the world
2. changes in internal environment as a result of carrying out life processes
Homeostasis: Dynamic process is Maintained by Dynamic process maintained by
negative feedback systems
negative feedback systems
“Opposite,” not “bad”
Reverses departure from homeostasis, bring variable back to normal
Examples of Negative Feed Back System
Blood pressure, hormone secretion, blood sugar levels, body water content, body pH levels
Slide example: you are hiking in the sun. You get Hot. Body temp rises causing your body to release a chemical causing you to sweat. Sweat evaporates on the skin and lowers your body temp.
Steps of Negative Feedback Loop
1. Normal Homeostasis distrubed
2. Receptors: Temp sensors in skin and Hypothalmus
3. Information affects the thermoregulatory center in the brain.
4. Sends commands to the Effectors causing sweat glands to secrete.
5. Normal temp restored. Homeostasis.
Physiological Terms: Positive Feedback
Less common
Promotes/accelerates departure from homeostasis (i.e., “feed-forward” response)
For specific purpose & duration
Must be controlled or can be “run-away” response
Uterine contractions
Blood clotting
Example:
1. break in blood vessel will cause bleeding
2. Dmged cells release chemicals
3. Clotting begins
4. additional chemicals released and clotting accelorates (positive feed back loop)
5. Blood clot plugs the break in the vessel wall stopping the bleeding.
Anatomical Position
1. Stand straight, head level, eyes forward, palms forward, toes straight ahead
2. “Reference” position
3. “Left,” “right” for subject, not observer
Planes of the Body
1. Frontal/Coronal- Anterior-posterior
2. Transverse- Superior-inferior
3. Sagittal- Left-right
1. Frontal/Coronal-
Anterior-posterior
2. Transverse-
Superior-inferior
3. Sagittal-
Left-right
Cavity Points to Note:
Diaphragm
Seperates the Thoracic Cavity and the Abdominopelvic Cavity
Anatomical Landmarks:
Supine
A person lying face up in in the anatomical position
Anatomical Landmarks:
Prone
a person lying face down in the anatomical position
Anatomical Landmarks:
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
4 quadrants formed by a pair of imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at the umbilicus (navel). Provides reference points for aches, pains, and injuries.Helps physicians determine possible causes.
Anatomical Landmarks:
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
(4)
Upper Right Quadrant
Lower Right Quadrant
Upper Left Quadrant
Lower Left Quadrant
Anatomical Landmarks:
Abdominopelvic Regions
more percise method to describe the location and orientation of internal organs. Shows the relationship between quadrants, regions, and internal organs.
Anatomical Landmarks:
Abdominopelvic Regions
(9)
1. Right/Left Hypoconhriac Region
2. Right/Left Lumbar Region
3. Right/Left Inguinal Region
4. Epigastric Region
5. Umbilical Region
6. Hypogastric Region
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Frontal or
Forehead
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Nasal, or
Nose
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Ocular; orbital
eye
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Otic
Ear
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Buccal
Cheek
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Cervical
Neck
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Thoracic
Thorax, Chest
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Mammary
Breast
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Abdominal
Abdomen
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Umbilical
Navel
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Pelvic
Pelvis
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Manuel
Hand
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Inguinal
Groin
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Pubic
Pubis
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Femoral
Thigh
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Pedal
Foot
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Hallux
Great Toe
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Digits (Phalanges)
toes
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Tarsal
Ankle
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Crural
Leg
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Patellar
Kneecap
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Digits
Fingers
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Palmar
Palm
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Carpal
wrist
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Antebrachial
Forearm
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Antecubital
Front of Elbow
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Brachial
Arm
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Axillary
Armpit
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Mental
Chin
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Oral
Mouth
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Cephalic
Head
Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior
Cranial
Facial
Skull
Face
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Cephalic
Head
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Cervical
Neck
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Upper Limb
Arm from Shoulder to Finger tip
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Lower Limb
Leg from Hip to Heal
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Plantar
Sole of Foot
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Calcaneal
Heel of Foot
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Sural
Calf
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Popliteal
Back of Knee
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Gluteal
Buttock
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Lumbar
Loin
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Olecranal
Back of Elbow
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Dorsal
Back
Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior
Acromial
Shoulder
Directional Terms:
Anterior
The Front Surface
The navel is on the Anterior surface of the trunk
Directional Terms:
Ventral
The belly side. (Equivalent to the Anterior)
The navel is on the VENTRAL surface of the trunk
Directional Terms:
Posterior or Dorsal
The back surface
the shoulder blade is located posterior to the ribcage
Directional Terms:
Cranial or Cephalic
The Head
The Cranial, border to the pelvis is on the side toward the head rather than the thigh
Directional Terms:
Superior
Above, at a higher level
The cranial border to the pelvis is superior to the high
Directional Terms:
Caudal
The tail (Coccyx)
the hips are Caudal to the waist
Directional Terms:
Inferior
Below, at a lower point
The knees are inferior to the hips
Directional Terms:
medial
Toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsagittal plane.
Moving medially from the arm across the chest surface brings you to the sternum.
Directional Terms:
Lateral
Away from the body's longitudinal axis; away from the midsaggital plane.
moving laterally from the nose brings you to the cheek.
Directional Terms:
Proximal
Toward an attached Base
the thigh is proximal to the foot.
Directional Terms:
Distal
Away from an attached base.
the fingers are distal to the wrist.
Directional Terms:
Superficial
At, near, or close to the body's surface
the skin is superficial to underlying structures.
Directional Terms:
Deep
Farther from the body surface
the bone in the thigh is deep within the muscle.
Directional Terms: Sectional Planes
Transverse or Horizontal
Perpendicular to Long axis
A transverse, or horizontal, this section separates superior and inferior portions of the body. A cut in this plane is called a cross section.
Directional Terms: Sectional Planes
Sagittal
Parallel to long axis
A Sagittal section separates right and left portions.
Directional Terms: Sectional Planes
Midsagittal
the plane passes through the midline; dividing the body into right and left sides
Directional Terms: Sectional Planes
parasagittal
a cut parallel to the midsagittal plane, separates the body into right and left portions of unequal size.
Directional Terms: Sectional Planes
Frontal or Coronal
section that separates anterior and posterior portions of the body. Coronal refers to sections passing through the skull.
Functions of Body Cavity :
1.
2.
1. Protect organs from shock and impact.
2. permit changes in size and shape of organ.
Body Cavity:
Ventral Body Cavity
Develops early in embryonic stages. contains organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. RCDUR
Body Cavity: Ventral Body Cavity
Subdivides into ___ and ___ during early development
Thoracic Cavity
Abdominalpelvic cavity
Body Cavity: Thoracic Cavity
Surrounded by___and____
Conisists of: ___,___,___,___
1. Chest wall and diaphragm
2. Right Pleural Cavity, Mediastinum, Pericardial Cavity, Left Pleural Cavity
Body Cavity: Thoracic CavityRight Pleural Cavity: Surrounds ___
Right Lung
Body Cavity: Thoracic CavityMediastinum: Contains ___
the treachea, esophagus, and major vessels
Body Cavity: Thoracic Cavity
Pericardial Cavity: Surrounds ___
Heart
Body Cavity: Thoracic Cavity
Left Pleural Cavity: Surrounds ___
Left Lung
Body Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity
Contains ___,___,___
1. Peritoneal Cavity
2. Abdominal Cavity
3. Pelvic Cavity
Body Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity
Peritoneal Cavity: Extends throughout ___
abdominal cavity and into superior portion of pelvic cavity
Body Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal Cavity: Contains many ___
digestive glands and organs
Body Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity
Pelvic Cavity: contains ___, ___,___
1. Urinary bladder
2. reproductive organs
3. last portion of the digestive tract
Cavity Points to Note:
Viscera-
Guts/Organs
Cavity Points to Note:
Serous membrane:
double-layered
Serous membrane:
Parietal layer:
lines the walls of the cavities
Serous membrane:
Visceral layer:
covers & adheres to viscera
Serous membrane:
Pleura:
serous m. for pleural cavities
Serous membrane:
Pericardium:
serous m. for pericardial cavity
Serous membrane:
Peritoneum:
serous m. for abd-pelvic cavity
Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy-
involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
Surface Anatomy-
A type of Gross Anatomy. Study of general form and superficial markings.
Regional Anatomy-
A type of Gross Anatomy- Focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body.
Systemic Anatomy-
A type of Gross Anatomy. The study of organ systems.
Organ system-
groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner.
Developmental Anatomy-
A type of Gross Anatomy. Describes the changes in form from conception and physical maturity.
Embryology-
The study of early development processes.
Clinical Anatomy-
A type of Gross Anatomy. includes subspecialities included in clinical practice
Microscopic Anatomy-
deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification, and the boundaries are set by equipment used.
What are the two major divisions of Microscopic Anatomy?
Cytology and Histology.
Cytology-
The study of internal structure of individual cells.
Histology-
examination of tissues.
Cells-
The smallest unit of life
Tissues
groups of specialized cells that work together to preform a specific function.
Tissues combine to form
Organs
Human Physiology-
Study of the functions of the human body
Levels of Organization:
The Chemical/Molecular Level-
Atoms
Levels of Organization:
The Cellular Level
Cells
Levels of Organization:
Tissue Level
Tissue
Levels of Organization:
Organ Level
Organs
Levels of Organization:
Organ System Level
Organ system.
Levels of Organization:
Organism Level
Organisms
Homeostasis
the tendency toward internal balance.
Homeostatic Regulation
the adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis.
Autoregulation-
intrinsic regulation. When a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts its activities in response to environmental change
Exrinsic Regulation-
results from activities of the nervous and endocrine system. they adjust the activities of other systems simultaneously.
Three parts of a Homeostatic Regulatory System-
1. Receptor
2. Control Center
3. Effector
Homeostatic Regulatory System:
Receptor (1st step)
a sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus/environmental change.
Homeostatic Regulatory System:
Control Center (2nd step)
integration center. receives and processes the information received by the receptor, and sends out commands.
Homeostatic Regulatory System:
Effector (3rd step)
a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whos activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus.
Homeostatic Regulatory System:
Set Point
desired value of the body in the homeostatic regulatory system.
Negative Feedback
A variation outside the desired set point (range) triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
Negative feedback opposes
variations from normal.
Positive feedback exaggerates
variations from normal.
Negative feedback is the primary mechanism of
homeostatic regulation. it provides long term control over the body's internal conditions and systems.
State of Equalibirium
exists when opposing processes are in balance. example: in the body- rate of heat loss= rate of heat production.
Dynamic Equalibrium
each physiological system constantly functions to maintain a state of equalibrium that keeps vital conditions within normal range. ex- when muscles function, they produce more heat. more heat must be used, so you sweat.
Chemistry
Science that deals with the structure of matter.
Atoms
Smallest stable units of matter.
Atoms are composed of
Subatomic particles
Three important subatomic particles:
1. Protons
2. Neutrons
3. Electrons
Protons
Located in the nucleus. Have a + charge.
Neutrons
Located in the nucleus. Have a - charge.
Electrons
Located in the orbital shell. have a -charge.
Element
pure substance composed of atams of only 1 kind.
Major elements
(96% of you): O, C, H, N
Lesser elements
(3.98% of you): Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe
Trace elements
(0.2% of you): 14 total
Nucleus
made of protons (p+) & neutrons (n0)
atomic #
# of p+
e- occupy a series of orbits, or shells, around the nucleus
Outermost e- shell determines reactivity of an atom
8 e- in outer orbit =
happy (stable!) atom
6 or 7 e- in outer orbit =
want to gain e-
1 or 2 e- in outer orbit =
want to lose e-
Ion:
atom that has lost or gained e-
Cation:
ion with positive charge (Na+, lose e-)
Anion:
ion with negative charge (Cl-, gain e-)
A Negative ION
Molecule:
combination of 2 or more atoms. Often will be atoms from same element
Compound:
Atoms of different elements
Ionic bond:
created by atom permanently donating e- to another atom
Covalent bond:
created by atoms sharing e- pairs (polar vs. non-polar)
Hydrogen bond:
attraction between + end of one molecule and - end of another (polarity)
Opposite charges attract molecules to each other.
Weak, joins molecules with other molecules
Ionic Bond Diagram
Ionic Bond Diagram
Covalent Bond Diagram
Single, Double, Triple, Non-Polar, Polar
Covalent Bond Diagram
Work:
movement of object or D in physical structure of matter…accomplishes a task!
Boiling water, running, car rolling down a hill, etc.
Energy:
Energy: capacity to perform work
Potential energy:
stored energy (top of hill)
Kinetic energy:
energy of motion (rolling down)
Potential -->kinetic not 100% efficient. Why?
Large amount of energy is lost as heat.
Chemical potential energy -->
kinetic energy
Ex: Energy stored in the Phosphate Bonds of ATP. When the bonds are broken, Energy is released.
Chemical reactions:
process of breaking and forming chemical bonds. Enables cells to live and function (metabolism)
Decomposition reactions
(aka, catabolism): Break down
A-B -> A + B + heat (roll car down the hill)
Hydrolysis: A-B + H2O -> A-H + HO-B
Synthesis reactions
(aka, anabolism): Building
A + B + energy -> A-B (roll car back up the hill)
Dehydration synthesis: A-H + HO-B  A-B + H2O
Activation energy:
amt of energy required to start reaction (or push car down hill)
Enzyme:
special proteins that lower the activation energy of a reaction, speed it up. A type of catalyst. Generally end in “-ase”. Ex. Telomerase.
Inorganic Chemistry:
Simple smaller molecules
no C-H bonds
H2O, CO2, O2, acids, bases, salts
Organic Chemistry:
Complex (often larger) molecules, C-H bonds
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Water is the most-
Most abundant chemical in body
Physical/chemical characteristics of Water: 1-6?
Absorb/release heat slowly
Hydrogen bonds
Breaks ionic bonds
Solvent
Lubricant
Common in chem rxns
Hydrophilic:
“water-loving”
Hydrophobic:
“water-fearing”
Electrolytes:
soluble inorganic molecules whose ions conduct electrical current in sol’n
Muscle/heart contraction, nerve conduction
Acid:
H+ donor (HCl, citric, acetic, ascorbic)
Base:
OH- donor (KOH, NaOH)
Acid + base =
neutral
Salt:
molecule that dissociates into something other than H+ or OH- (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2)
pH:
measure of H+ in a solution
Scale:
Neutral:
Physiological:
Scale 0-14 (log)
Neutral: 7
Physiological: 7.4
Buffer:
can absorb excess H+ (if too acidic) or release H+ (if too basic) to maintain pH- example of this is Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
an internal Buffer system. Carbonic Acid releases a H+ to become Bicarbonate. Reversely, it can add a H+ to become Carbonic Acid.
Organic Molecules are: 1-4
Complex, large compounds
Contain C,H, and usually O
Can also include N, P, S, Fe
C-H covalent bonds
Organic functional groups influence
molecular properties
Carbon:
4 covalent bonds (share 4 outer e-)
H forms 1 covalent bond
C mostly bonds with H or other C
Hydroxyl:
-OH
Carboxyl:
-COOH
Amino:
-NH2
Phosphate:
-PO4
Carbohydrates:
Family of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, glycogen, & cellulose
Carbohydrates: are an important source of
energy
Carbohydrates are made of rings of :
have a _:_ ratio
example:
Made of rings of C, H, O
1:2:1
C6H12O6: glucose
Monosaccharides:
1 ring
Disaccharides:
2 rings
Polysaccharides:
many rings
Carbohydrates Diagram
Carbohydrates Diagram
Lipids are made up of:
have an H ratio of _:_
Made of C,H,O, but fewer O than carbs
C:H ratio is 1:2
Lipids are Hydrophobic or Hydrophillic? Why?
Hydrophobic (C-H groups non-polar)
Lipids: Fatty Acids
Saturated:
contains max # of H
Single covalent bonds
Stable, hard to break down
Lipids: Fatty Acids
Unsaturated:
contains fewer H
Double covalent bond(s)
Less stable, easier to break down
Lipids: Saturated vs Unsaturated Diagram
Lipids: Saturated vs Unsaturated Diagram
Lipids: Triglycerides
Most common lipid in __ and __
also used to __ the body and __organs.
Most common lipid in body & diet
Insulation
Protection
Lipids: Triglycerides
are an efficient source of __
__kcal/g
__kcal/lb
1FA=__x >1glucose
Efficient energy source
9 kcal/g
3500 kcal/lb
1 FA = 3x > 1 glucose
Lipids: Triglycerides
is the glycerol ___ with 3 FA
Glycerol backbone + 3 FA
Lipids: Triglycerides Diagram
Lipids: Triglycerides Diagram
Lipids: Steroids
essential in the body functions:
1. __ __ component
2. __ signaling
3. Digestion of __
Essential in body functions:
Cell membrane component
Hormone signaling
Digestion of fats
Lipids: Steroids
Examples include:
Cholesterol
Testosterone, estrogen
Cortisol, hydrocortisone
Lipids: Phospholipids
Main component of cell ___. AKA "___".
Main component of cell membranes
“Phospholipid bilayer”
Lipids: Phospholipids are ___ meaning both water fearing and water loving.
Amphipathic
Lipids: Phospholipids
___ links __ FA (diglyceride) “tails” to non-lipid, ___“head”
PO4 links 2 FA (diglyceride) “tails” to non-lipid, polar “head”
Lipids: Phospholipids Spontaneously congregate to form ___
micelles
Example: lecithin
Lipids: Phospholipids Diagram
Lipids: Phospholipids Diagram
Proteins are the most __ and make up ___% of the body weight.
Most abundant organic compound in body 20% of body weight
Proteins: 7 types:SCTEBAH
Structural
Contractile
Transport
Enzymes
Buffering
Antibodies
Hormones
Proteins are not a fuel source, except in
starvation
Proteins are composed of
C,H,O,N, sometimes S or P
Proteins are longs strands of ___
Long strands of building blocks called amino acids (think: beads on a necklace)
Amino Acids: there are __ total. ___and non-___
20. Essential and non essential.
proteins are considered anions because
R group is often negatively charged,
Protein: Amino Acid Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Diagram
Protein: Amino Acid Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Diagram
dipeptide
2 AAs connected by peptide bond:
tripeptide
3 AAs connected by peptide bond
polypeptide
4+ AAs connected by peptide bonds
protein is
Polypeptides w/ 100+ AAs
Proteins: Structure & Function
Protein shape (structure) -> protein function
Proteins: Structure & Function
What determines protein shape?
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure:
Denaturing
Primary structure:
AA sequence itself
Secondary structure:
AA interactions
Tertiary structure:
complex folding of 2° structures to give 3-D appearance
Quaternary structure:
2+ tertiary sub-units
Denaturing:
protein structure (thus function) altered due to non-homeostasis
Proteins: Structure & Function
Structure Diagram
Proteins: Structure & Function
Structure Diagram
Nucleic Acids: Family of organic compounds that
store & process information inside the cell
Deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA)—the blueprints
Ribonucleic acid
(RNA)—the builders
Nucleic Acids are made up of
C,H,O,N,P
Nucleic Acids have 2 components:
Nucleotides: N-based building blocks
(Deoxy)ribose-PO4 backbone
Nucleic Acids:
Nucleotides:
N-based building blocks
Nucleic Acids:
(Deoxy)ribose-
PO4 backbone
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP is the
Energy currency
ATP is the End point of
sugar, fat catabolism
Energy in bonds
ATP ->___
ATP -> ADP + Pi
Anatomy of a Cell:
Plasma membrane
The skin
Barrier
Anatomy of a Cell:
Nucleus
The brain
DNA, chromosomes
Anatomy of a Cell:
Cytoplasm
The guts
Cytosol + organelles
Overview of Cells:
Smallest functional ___
Produced by division of ___.
unit of life
pre-existing cells
Overview of Cells:
Somatic cells
(mitosis)
Overview of Cells:
Sex cells/gametes
(meiosis)
Cytology
The study of cells
The Cell:
Plasma/Cell membrane: General functions
1. Physical isolation
2. Regulation of exchange of material between inside and outside
3. Sensitivity to the environment
4. Structural support.
Plasma Membrane:
Functions
Barrier btwn inside, outside of cell
Regulate exchange w/ environment
Receive signals (chemical, mechanical)
Plasma Membrane:
Membrane structures - support function
Phospholipid bilayer: barrier
Cholesterol: reinforce barrier, anchors proteins
Proteins: control entry, receive/transmit signals (receptors), anchor, recognition, enzymes
CHOs: lubricate, protect, anchor
Plasma Membrane:
Phospholipid bilayer:
barrier
Plasma Membrane:
Cholesterol:
reinforce barrier, anchors proteins
Plasma Membrane:
Proteins:
control entry, receive/transmit signals (receptors), anchor, recognition, enzymes
Plasma Membrane
CHOs:
lubricate, protect, anchor
Plasma Membrane:
Integral Proteins
Span the width of the membrane one or more times- transmembrane proteins.
Plasma Membrane:
Peripheral Proteins
bound to the inner and outer surface of the membrane and are easily separated.
Plasma Membrane:
Anchoring Proteins
attach the plasma membrane to other structures and stabilize its position.
Plasma Membrane:
Recognition Proteins
recgonize other cells as normal or abnormal.
Plasma Membrane:
Enzymes
catalyze reactions in the extracellular fluid or the cytosol
Plasma Membrane:
Receptor Proteins
are sensitive to a specific extracellular molecule
Plasma Membrane:
Carrier Proteins
bind solutes and transport them across the membrane
Plasma Membrane:
Channels
an integral protein with a central pore that forms a passageway across the membrane.
Plasma membrane:
what are the differences between Cytosol and extracellular fluid?
cytosol contains more sodium ions. Extracellular fluid contains more potassium ions. Cytosol has a creater [suspended proteins]. Cytosol contains small quantities of proteins amino acids and lipids.
Organelles:
are the internal structures that perform most of the tasks that keep a cell alive and functioning. Include the cytoskeleton, ribocomes, and microvili ect.
Nonmembraneous Organelles:
not completly enclosed by a membrane. all of their contents are exposed to the cytosol. Ex: the ER, GA, and Lyososomes.
Membranous Organelles
are isolated from the cell by a phospholipid bilayer.
Cytoskeleton
functions as the cells skeleton, providing str and stability.
What makes up the Cytoskeleton
Microfiliments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
Cytoskeleton:
Microfilaments are made of ___. and most commonly make up the ___ of the cell
are made of actin protein. and most commonly make up the periphery of the cell
Cytoskeleton:
Microfilaments anchor the ___to ___s of the plasma membrane.
anchor the cytoskeleton to intergral proteins of the plasma membrane.
Cytoskeleton:
Microfilaments determine the ___of the ___.
determine the consistancy of the cytoplasm.
Actin can interact with the protein ___ to produce movement of a portion of a cell or to change the ______.
Actin can interact with the protein myosin to produce movement of a portion of a cell or to change the shape of the entire cell.
Cytoskeleton:
Intermediatefilaments are ___in size and ___the cell and help maintain its ___, stabilize the position of ___, and stabilize the cell with respect to ___.
Cytoskeleton:
Intermediatefilaments are intermediate in size and strengthen the cell and help maintain its shape, stabilize the position of organelles, and stabilize the cell with respect to surrounding cells.
Cytoskeleton:
Microtubules are ___tubes built from globular protein ___. Are the ___ component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules are hallow tubes built from globular protein tubulin. Are the largest component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules form the ___components of the cytoskeleton, giving the cell ___and rigidity and anchoring the position of the ___.
Microtubules form the primary components of the cytoskeleton, giving the cell strength and rigity and anchoring the position of the organelles.
The dis-assembly of ___provides a mechanism for changing the ___of the cell. possibly for ___.
The dis-assembly of microtubules provides a mechanism for changing the shape of the cell. possibly for movement.
Microtubles can move ___or other organelles within the cell.
Microtubles can move vesicles or other organelles within the cell.
During division, Microtubules form the ___.
During division, Microtubules form the spindle apparatus.
microtubules form structural components of organelles, such as centrioles and cilia.
microtubules form ___components of organelles, such as ___and ___.
Nucleus:
Nuclear envelope:
Double-bilayer membrane
Nucleus:
Nuclear pores:
interact w/ cytoplasm
Nucleus:
Nucleolus:
produce RNA, ribosomes
Nucleus
Nucleus
Cytoplasm-All cell ___ besides nucleus
All cell contents besides nucleus
Cytosol: component of the cytoplasm. Contains ___,
___, ___, ___, ___. WHIPN
Cytosol: component of the cytoplasm. Contains H2O, nutrients, ions, proteins, waste
___ Organelles:
Cytoskeleton
Microvilli
Centrosome
Cilia, Flagella
Ribosomes
___ Organelles:
Cytoskeleton
Microvilli
Centrosome
Cilia, Flagella
Ribosomes
___Organelles:
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondria
“Small bodies”
Membranous Organelles:
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondria
“Small bodies”
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli:
Functions:
Structural ___
Defines cell ___
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli:
Functions:
Structural scaffolding
Defines cell shape
3 “skeleton” fibers:
“Cables”: microfilaments, intermediate filaments
“Support beams”: microtubules
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli:
3 “skeleton” fibers:
“Cables”: ___
, ___filaments
“Support beams”: ___
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli:
3 “skeleton” fibers:
“Cables”: microfilaments, intermediate filaments
“Support beams”: microtubules
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli
Centrosome:
Moves ___ during mitosis.
Organize the ___.
Centrosome:
Moves chromosomes during mitosis.
Organize the cytoskeleton
Cilia
Anchored by a ___.
Beat rhythmically to ___.
Cilia
Anchored by a basal body
Beat rhythmically to move stuff past cell
Flagella: cell ___
Flagella: cell motility
Ribosomes: are responsible for ___.
Ribosomes: are responsible for protein synthesis.
Can be found free-floating or on E.R.
Ribosomes can be ___ make proteins for cell itself
___ make proteins for ___from cell
Can be found free-floating or on E.R.
Ribosomes can be Free-floaters make proteins for cell itself
E.R.-bound make proteins for export from cell
Ribosomes are Made of ___ (rRNA) & ___
Ribosomes are Made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) & proteins
Ribosome
Ribosome
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) is a network of ___ connected to the nuclear ___, which surrounds the nucleus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) is a network of intracellular membranes connected to the nuclear envelope, which surrounds the nucleus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions: s___, s___, t___, d___
Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions: synthesis, storage, transport, detox
Rough E.R.: produces and ___proteins destined for ___of the cell, for ___
Rough E.R.: produces and packages proteins destined for export out of the cell, for membrane
Smooth E.R.: perform non-protein cell functions
F___, phospho___, ste___synthesis
Release of ___, drug detox (liver)
Smooth E.R.: perform non-protein cell functions
Fatty acid, phospholipid, steroid synthesis
Release of glucose, drug detox (liver)
)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure: cisternae ___
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure: cisternae (folded membranes)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Complex-Function: Refine proteins from ___ER, package, ___ storage, ___
Golgi Complex-Function: Refine proteins from rough ER, package, long-term storage, export
Golgi Complex-Structure: composed of ___
Golgi Complex-Structure: composed of cisternae
Golgi Complex-Receives raw proteins from rough ER on ___
Modify, reorganize, package proteins
Release processed proteins on___
Golgi Complex-Receives raw proteins from rough ER on cis face
Modify, reorganize, package proteins
Release processed proteins on trans face
Golgi Complex
Golgi Complex
Lyosomes:vesicles that preform ___ and ___within the cell.
vesicles that preform essential cleanup and recycling within the cell.
Mitochondria: Structure: ___-shaped organelle with ___internal membranes (___)
Mitochondria: Structure: kidney-shaped organelle with folded internal membranes (cristae)
Mitochondria: Double ___, liquid ___, enzymes
Have own ___, ribosomes
Trace maternal ancestry here
Mitochondria: Double membrane, liquid matrix, enzymes
Have own DNA, ribosomes
Trace maternal ancestry here
Mitochondria: Function: produce __
“___” of the cell
Some cells have many (muscle, liver, kidney)
Making ATP here requires ___
Mitochondria: Function: produce ATP
“Power houses” of the cell
Some cells have many (muscle, liver, kidney)
Making ATP here requires O2
Mitochondria
Mitochondria
“Small Bodies” Structure: small enclosed sacs (___) that isolate ___
“Small Bodies” Structure: small enclosed sacs (vesicles) that isolate dangerous activities/substances
“Small Bodies” Functions:
Lysosomes contain ___enzymes
Peroxisomes ___(abundant in liver)
Proteasomes digest ___
“Small Bodies” Functions:
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes
Peroxisomes detoxify (abundant in liver)
Proteasomes digest excess/defective proteins
Membrane Transport: Review of Plasma Membrane
impermeable:
lets nothing in or out
Membrane Transport: Review of Plasma Membrane
freely permeable:
lets anything in or out
Membrane Transport: Review of Plasma Membrane
selectively permeable:
restricts what/when molecules move across membrane
Body Water Content
INTRACELLULAR FLUID
___ of TBW
Body Water Content
INTRACELLULAR FLUID
2/3 of TBW
Body Water Content
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
___ of TBW
INTERSTITIAL FLUID
___ of ECF
PLASMA
___of ECF
Body Water Content
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
___ of TBW
INTERSTITIAL FLUID
3/4 of ECF
PLASMA
1/4 of ECF
Intracellular: ___the cells
Interstitial: ___cells
Plasma: in the ___
Intracellular: inside the cells
Interstitial: between cells
Plasma: in the blood
Solutions:
Solvent: liquid that ___
Usually water
Solutions:
Solvent: liquid that dissolves
Usually water
Solutions:
Solute: ___material
Ions, gases, molecules
Solutions:
Solute: dissolved material
Ions, gases, molecules
Solution:
Concentration: amt of ___in given volume of ___(abbrev: [ ])
Ex: teaspoons of salt per cup of water
Concentration: amt of solute in given volume of solvent (abbrev: [ ])
Ex: teaspoons of salt per cup of water
Solution:
[ ] gradient: difference in [ ] between 2 ___
[ ] gradient: difference in [ ] between 2 solns
when solutes Move “down [ ] gradient”—no ___required
when solutes Move “down [ ] gradient”—no ATP required
Equilibrium: all solutes ___
equally distributed
Diffusion: move something ___[ ] gradient
Diffusion: move something down [ ] gradient
Simple Diffusion:
Simple (hydrophobic/non-polar)
Facilitated Diffusion:
Facilitated (charged, hydrophilic/polar)
Osmosis:
mvmt of water down [ ] gradient
what affects diffusion
what affects diffusion
What affects Diffusion?
DEP
Distance
Electrical forces
Permeability
Simple Diffusion
Think food coloring in water or perfume in air.
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
Requirements for simple diffusion:
Solute travels ___[ ] gradient
Solute able to ___ diffuse thru cell membrane
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
Requirements for simple diffusion:
Solute travels down [ ] gradient
Solute able to freely diffuse thru cell membrane
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
Pass right through ___.
Lipid-soluble molecules
O2, CO2
Fatty acids, steroids
Vitamins A,D,E,K
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
Pass right through lipid bilayer
Lipid-soluble molecules
O2, CO2
Fatty acids, steroids
Vitamins A,D,E,K
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
Requirements for facilitated diffusion:
Solute travels ___[ ] gradient
Solute needs help (a ___) to get it through the membrane (no ___required)
Max speed depends on # of ___.
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
Requirements for facilitated diffusion:
Solute travels down [ ] gradient
Solute needs help (a transporter) to get it through the membrane (no ATP required)
Max speed depends on # of transporters
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion-Who uses them?
Ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+) use ___
Glucose, amino acids, nucleotides use ___.
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion-Who uses them?
Ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+) use channels
Glucose, amino acids, nucleotides use carriers
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
Passive Transport:Facilitated Diffusion
Passive Transport: Osmosis (Movement of Water):
Membrane must be ___ to water
Passive Transport: Osmosis (Movement of Water):
Membrane must be permeable to water
Osmosis: Water moves ___its [ ] gradient.
Area of ___water molecules to ___molecules.
i.e., from area of low solute [ ] to high solute [ ]
Osmosis: Water moves down its [ ] gradient
Area of more water molecules to fewer molecules
i.e., from area of low solute [ ] to high solute [ ]
Osmotic pressure: force of water movement due to ___
Osmotic pressure: force of water movement due to osmotic gradient
Osmotic pressure: Osmotic P physically countered by ___.
think plunger in the UTube
Osmotic pressure: Osmotic P physically countered by hydrostatic P
think plunger in the UTube
Osmosis: Osmolarity vs. Tonicity
Osmolarity: measure of concentration of all ___.
i.e., both __& __ solutes.
Tells how much total solute is ___in solution
Doesn’t tell much about whether ___will move thru membrane or not
Osmosis: Osmolarity vs. Tonicity
Osmolarity: measure of concentration of all solutes in solution
i.e., both permeable & non-permeable solutes
Tells how much total solute is dissolved in solution
Doesn’t tell much about whether water will move thru membrane or not
Osmosis: Osmolarity vs. Tonicity
Tonicity: concerned with only ___ solutes in solution
Tells about solution’s ability to actually cause ___ of water
Tonicity: concerned with only non-permeable solutes in solution
Tells about solution’s ability to actually cause osmotic flow of water
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Iso-osmotic: soln has ___[ ] of solutes as another soln
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Iso-osmotic: soln has same [ ] of solutes as another soln
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Hypo-osmotic: soln has __[ ] vs. another soln
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Hypo-osmotic: soln has lower [ ] vs. another soln
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Hyper-osmotic: soln has __[ ] vs. another soln
Osmosis: Osmolarity
Hyper-osmotic: soln has higher [ ] vs. another soln
Osmosis: Tonicity
Isotonic: No net ___flow
Osmosis: Tonicity
Isotonic: No net osmotic flow
Osmosis: Tonicity
Hypotonic: Will ___ thru osmosis
Osmosis: Tonicity
Hypotonic: Will lose water thru osmosis
Osmosis: Tonicity
Hypertonic: Will ___thru osmosis
Osmosis: Tonicity
Hypertonic: Will gain water thru osmosis
Osmosis: Tonicity
Osmosis: Tonicity
Active Transport:
Requirements:
Solutes than cannot cross ___.
Method to move ___across membrane
Requires ___.
Active Transport:

Requirements:
Solutes than cannot cross passively
Method to move solutes across membrane
Requires ATP
Active Transport:
Moves solutes ___[ ] gradient
From area of ___[ ] to area of ___[ ]
Just like moving uphill, requires energy!
Active Transport:
Moves solutes up [ ] gradient
From area of low [ ] to area of high [ ]
Just like moving uphill, requires energy!
Active Transport:
Critical for re-establishing ___ involved in nerve conduction and heart contraction
Active Transport:
Critical for re-establishing gradients involved in nerve conduction and heart contraction
Active Transport: Vesicles
Vesicle: ___
A “cell within a cell”
Active Transport: Vesicles
Vesicle: small membrane-encased sac
A “cell within a cell”
Active Transport: Vesicles
Endocytosis: ___materials into cell
Receptor-mediated
Active Transport: Vesicles
Endocytosis: import materials into cell
Receptor-mediated
Active Transport: Vesicles
Phagocytosis: ___of bacteria and other particles into white blood cells. Solids.
Active Transport: Vesicles
Phagocytosis: ingestion of bacteria and other particles into white blood cells
Active Transport: Vesicles
Pinocytosis: ingestion of ___
Active Transport: Vesicles
Pinocytosis: ingestion of fluid
Active Transport: Vesicles Exocytosis: ___materials from cell
Active Transport: Vesicles Exocytosis: export materials from cell
Active Transport: Vesicles
Active Transport: Vesicles
The Cell Life Cycle
Phases of Mitosis
The Cell Life Cycle
Phases of Mitosis
Most of cell’s life spend ___ dividing, but in ___
Most of cell’s life spend ___dividing, but in Interphase
Body (somatic) cells divide in 2 stages
Mitotis:
Cytokinesis:
Body (somatic) cells divide in 2 stages
Mitotis: divides genetic material equally
Cytokinesis: divides cytoplasm & organelles equally between 2 daughter cells
Hyperplasia means ___in number of ___. This is seen in Prophase-Teleophase.
Hyperplasia means increase in number of cells. This is seen in Prophase-Teleophase
Hypertrophy is the increase in the ___of a cell due to the enlargement of its ___. This is seen in Interphase.
Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of a cell due to the enlargement of its component cells. This is seen in Interphase.
The Cell Cycle
Hypertrophy is seen in which phases? Hyperplasia is seen in which phases?
The Cell Cycle
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes

Genetic material organized into --- chromosomes
2 sets of ___chromosomes
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes

Genetic material organized into 46 chromosomes
2 sets of 23 chromosomes
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes
Each chromosome = string of genes
Each chromosome contains ~ 1___ genes
Each gene codes for ___ protein for a trait
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes
Each chromosome = string of genes
Each chromosome contains ~ 1000 genes
Each gene codes for 1 protein for a trait
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes
Each gene is made up of ___= long strands of nucleotide base pairs
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes
Each gene is made up of DNA = long strands of nucleotide base pairs
DNA & Genes & Chromosomes
DNA is basic genetic material of ___.
DNA is basic genetic material of life
Mitosis
1. Prophase
Chromatin (loose genetic strands) condenses into ___
Each single chromosome (chromatid) pairs up with its duplicate (i.e., dad’s chromosome 7 finds its double), making ___pairs in total
Connected in the middle with a ___
Mitosis
1. Prophase
Chromatin (loose genetic strands) condenses into chromosomes
Each single chromosome (chromatid) pairs up with its duplicate (i.e., dad’s chromosome 7 finds its double), making 46 pairs in total
Connected in the middle with a centromere
1. Prophase
___form, connect north & south poles
Think: longitudinal lines on a globe
Poles are ___
1. Prophase
Spindles form, connect north & south poles
Think: longitudinal lines on a globe
Poles are centrioles
4. Telophase
Chromosomes revert back to threadlike loose strands of chromatin
Nuclear envelope, nucleolus reappear
Mitotic spindle breaks up
Cytokinesis completed
Chromosomes revert back to threadlike loose strands of chromatin
Nuclear envelope, nucleolus reappear
Mitotic spindle breaks up
Cytokinesis completed
Protein Synthesis: The Whole Purpose and Reason for ___Existence
Protein Synthesis: The Whole Purpose and Reason for DNA’s Existence
Protein Synthesis:
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA
___ for protein assembly
Protein Synthesis:
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA
Heritable instructions for protein assembly
Protein Synthesis:
BOTTOM LINE: DNA contains code for ___, and ___make our world go ’round
Protein Synthesis:
BOTTOM LINE: DNA contains code for proteins, and proteins make our world go ’round
Protein Synthesis:
Proteins: long strands of ___ strung together like beads on a necklace
Protein Synthesis:
Proteins: long strands of amino acids strung together like beads on a necklace
Protein Synthesis:
Gene codes for protein’s ___ sequence
Protein Synthesis:
Gene codes for protein’s AA sequence
DNA:
Double-helix: twisted ladder
Verticals: ___ molecules
Rungs: 4 different ___
DNA:
Double-helix: twisted ladder
Verticals: sugar-P molecules
Rungs: 4 different nucleotides
DNA: Nucleotides
_,_,_,_ (A,C,G,T)
_ & _ combine to make rung
_ & _ combine to make rung.
Series of consecutive rungs (# will differ) comprises a ___.
Nucleotides
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine (A,C,G,T)
A & T combine to make rung
C & G combine to make rung
Series of consecutive rungs (# will differ) comprises a gene
Nucleus, Ribosomes:
Nucleus: houses ___, protects from harm
Loosen, long DNA threads of ___.
Sole copy of critical ___.
Nucleus: houses DNA, protects from harm
Loosen, long DNA threads of chromatin
Sole copy of critical blueprints
Nucleolus: makes ___and ___
Nucleolus: makes ribosomes and RNA
Nuclear pore: ___, ___leave nucleus
Nuclear pore: ribosomes, RNA leave nucleus
Ribosomes: ___assembly factories
Help physically assemble ___strands
Ribosomes: protein assembly factories
Help physically assemble protein strands
DNA is blueprint for ___.
___production is the whole point of DNA!!!
DNA is blueprint for proteins
Protein production is the whole point of DNA!!!
Transcription: ___phase, occurs 1st
From DNA to ___
Makes copy of (transcribes) info from ___.
Transcription: nuclear phase, occurs 1st
From DNA to RNA
Makes copy of (transcribes) info from DNA
Translation: ___phase, occurs 2nd
From RNA to ___
Translates from “language” of ___to “language” of ___
Translation: cytoplasmic phase, occurs 2nd
From RNA to protein
Translates from “language” of nucleotides to “language” of amino acids
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
Enables safe ___of ___ out of nucleus
Enables safe transport of gene instruction out of nucleus
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
“Mirror”-image of ___strand
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
“Mirror”-image of DNA strand
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
DNA “unzips”
Into ___ and ___strands
DNA “unzips”
Into coding and template strands
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
mRNA assembled using free-floating ___
RNA polymerase
mRNA assembled using free-floating nucleotides
RNA polymerase
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
RNA uses ___ instead of thymine
RNA uses uracil (U) instead of thymine
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
Base triplet:
Codon:
Base triplet
Sequence of 3 DNA bases
Codon
Sequence of 3 RNA bases
Codons will code for amino acid sequence of protein
Protein Synthesis: Translation
from ___to protein
Protein Synthesis: Translation—from mRNA to protein
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Codon “___” from bases into ___
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Codon “translated” from bases into amino acids
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Requires ___ different types of RNA…___, ___, ___
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Requires 3 different types of RNA…
mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Messenger RNA (mRNA): from nucleus, contains code for ___of ___
Messenger RNA (mRNA): from nucleus, contains code for sequence of amino acids
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): building blocks of ___, site of ___/protein assembly
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): building blocks of ribosomes, site of translation/protein assembly
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Transfer RNA (tRNA): carry free-floating ___ from ___to ___codon
The “Brick Layer”
Transfer RNA (tRNA): carry free-floating amino acid from cytoplasm to mRNA codon
The “Brick Layer”
Protein Synthesis: Translation
After all codons for gene have been read, all amino acids are strung together, protein is complete
After all codons for gene have been read, all amino acids are strung together, protein is complete