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91 Cards in this Set

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Define Anatomy
The bodily structure of a plant/animal or any of it's parts.
Define Physiology
The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.
Name the 11 organ systems
1. Integumentary
2. Nervous
3. Muscular
4. Skeletal
5. Endocrine
6. Cardiovascular
7. Lymphatic
8. Respiratory
9. Digestive
10. Urinary
11. Reproductive (Male/Female)
The Integumentary System
Major Organs(4)
1. Skin
2. Hair
3. Sweat Glands
4. Nails
The Integumentary System
Major Functions(3)
1. Protect against environmental Hazards
2. Helps regulate body temperature
3. Provides sensory info.
Nervous System
Major Organs(4)
- Brain
- Spinal Cord
- Peripheral nerves
- Sense organs
Nervous System
Major Functions(3)
- Directs immediate responses to stimuli
- Coordinates activities of other organ systems
- Provides/Interprets sensory info about external conditions
Skeletal System
Major Organs(4)
- Bones
- Cartilages
- Associated ligaments
- Bone marrow
Skeletal System
Major Functions)3)
- Provides support/protection for other tissues
- Stores calcium and other minerals
- Forms blood cells
Muscular System
Major Organs(1)
- Skeletal muscles and associated tendons and aponeuroses
Muscular System
Major Functions(3)
- Provides movement
- Provides protection/support for other tissues
- Generates heat that maintains body temp.
Endocrine System
Major Organs(6)
- Pituitary gland
- Thyroid gland
- Pancreas
- Adrenal glands
- Gonads (testes/ovaries)
- Endocrine tissues in other systems
Endocrine System
Major Functions(3)
- Direct long-term changes in the activies of other organ systems
- Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body
- Controls structural/functional changes during development
Cardiovascular System
Major Organs(3)
- Heart
- Blood
- Blood vessels
Cardiovascular System
Major Functions(2)
- Distribute blood cells, water, and dissolved materials. (ex. nutrients, waste, products, oxygen, and CO2)
- Distributes heat and assists in control of body temp.
Lymphatic System
Major Organs(5)
- spleen
- thymus
- lymphatic vessels
- lymph nodes
- tonsils
Lymphatic System
Major Functions(2)
- Defends against infection and disease
- Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Digestive System
Major Organs(10)
- Teeth
- Tongue
- Pharynx
- Esophagus
- Stomach
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
- Liver
- Gallbladder
- Pancreas
Digestive System
Major Functions(4)
- Processes/Digests food
- Absorbs/Conserves water
- Absorbs nutrients (ions, water, & breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats).
- Stores energy reserves
Respiratory System
Major Organs(7)
- Nasal Cavities
- Sinuses
- Larynx
- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Lungs
- Alveoli
Respiratory System
Major Functions(4)
- Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs
- Provides oxygen to bloodstream
- Removes CO2 from bloodstream
- Produces sounds for communication
Urinary System
Major Organs(4)
- Kidneys
- Ureters
- Urinary bladder
- Urethra
Urinary System
Major Functions(4)
- Excretes waste from the blood
- Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine
- Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination
- Regulates blood ion concentrations/pH
Male Reproductive System
Major Organs(7)
- Testes
- Epididymis
- Ductus deferens
- Seminal vesicles
- Prostate gland
- Penis
- Scrotum
Male Reproductive System
Major Functions(1)
- Produces male sex cells(sperm) and hormones
Female Reproductive System
Major Organs(7)
- Ovaries
- Uterine tubes
- Uterus
- Vagina
- Labia
- Clitoris
- Mammary glands
Female Reproductive System
Major Functions(3)
- Produces female sex cells (oocytes), and hormones
- Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery
- Provides milk to nourish newborn infant
Define Homeostasis
Maintenance of a stable set of internal operating conditions
Homeostatic Regulations involve what 3 things?
- Receptors
- Control Centers
- Effectors
Define Receptors
Monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)
Name 2 types of Homeostatic receptors
- Interoceptors
- Exteroceptors
-Types of Receptors
*Interoceptors-(located internally)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Name the 5 Interoceptors and give examples of each
- Baroreceptors(pressures)
- Chemoreceptors(pH, oxygen levels)
- Thermoreceptors(temperature)
- Stretch Receptors(in muscle)
- Nociceptors(pain)
- Types of Receptors
*Exteroceptors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Name 5 types and give examples.
- Mechanoreceptors(touch, hearing)
- Chemoreceptors(pH, taste, smell)
- Thermoreceptors(Temperature)
- Nociceptors(pain)
- Photoreceptors(vision)
Define Control System
Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
List the Control Centers
- Brain
- Spinal Cord
- W/in Organs
*Pancreas
*Thyroid gland
*Digestive tract
Define Effector
- Any structure that operates in response to signals from a control center.
- provides the means to respond to stimuli
Homeostatic Effector

List 3 examples:
- Skeletal Muscles
- Smooth Muscles
- Glands
Negative Feedback

1. Most common or uncommon?
2. Initiates an effector response that ______ that change.
3. List 3 examples
1. Common
2. reverses
3.
a. Temperature regulation
b. Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels
c. Regulation of pH
Positive Feedback

1. Most common or uncommon?
2. Initiates an effector response that ______ that change.
3. Examples
1. Uncommon
2. Increases
3.
a. Blood Clotting
b. Labor Contractions
c. Lactation
In positive feedback systems, the output ...
enhances the original stimulus.
In negative feedback systems, the output ...
shuts off the original stimulus.
Describe Anatomical Position

1. Body
2. Feet
3. Palms
4. Thumbs
1. Erect
2. Slightly apart
3. Facing forward
4. Point away from body
"Anatomical Position" important in studying anatomy because
it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature. (ex, anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, abduction and adduction)
Directional Terms:

1. Superior
2. Inferior
1. Toward the head
2. Away from the head
Directional Terms:

1. Anterior
2. Posterior
1. Toward the front of body.
2. Toward the back of body.
Directional Terms:

1. Proximal
2. Distal
1. Closer to origin of body part
2. Farther from origin of body part
Directional Terms:

1. Superficial
2. Deep
1. Toward the body surface
2. Away from the body surface
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view from neck up"

1. Frontal
2. Orbital
3. Buccal
4. Mental
5. Nasal
6. Oral
7. Cervical
1. Forehead
2. Eye
3. Cheek
4. Chin
5. Nose
6. Mouth
7. Neck
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view for Arm"

1. Acromial
2. Axillary
3. Branchial
4. Antecubital
5. Antebrachial
1. Point of shoulder
2. Armpit
3. Arm
4. Front of elbow
5. Forearm
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view for Hand"

1. Carpal
2. Polex
3. Palmar
4. Digital
1. Wrist
2. Thumb
3. Palm
4. Finger
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view of Upper Body"

1. Sternal
2. Thoracic
3. Mammary
4. Umbilical
5. Abdominal
1. Breastbone
2. Chest
3. Breast
4. Navel
5. Abdomen
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view of Lower Body"

1. Pelvic
2. Pubic
3. Inguinal
1. Pelvis
2. Genital region
3. Groin
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view for Legs"

1. Coxal
2. Patellar
3. Femoral
4. Crural
5. Fibular/Peroneal
1. Hip
2. Anterior Knee
3. Thigh
4. Leg
5. Side of Leg
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Anterior view of Feet"

1. Tarsal
2. Pedal
3. Digital
4. Hallux
1. Ankle
2. Foot
3. Toes
4. Great toe
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view from neck up"

1. Otic
2. Cephalic
3. Occipital
1. Ear
2. Head
3. Back of head/Base of skull
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view of Arm/Hand"

1. Acromial
2. Brachial
3. Olecranal
4. Manus
1. Point of shoulder
2. Arm
3. Elbow
4. Hand
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view of Upper Body"

1. Vertebral
2. Scapular
3. Dorsum/Dorsal
4. Lumbar
5. Sacral
1. Spinal column
2. Shoulder blade
3. Back
4. Loin
5. B/W hips
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view of Lower Body"

1. Gluteal
2. Perineal
1. Buttock
2. Region b/w anus/genitalia
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view of Leg"

1. Femoral
2. Popliteal
3. Sural
1. Thigh
2. Back of knee
3. Calf
Name body parts from anatomical terminology.
"Posterial view of Feet"

1. Calcaneal
2. Plantar
1. Heel
2. Sole
Dorsal Body Cavity 2 Subdivisions

1.
2.
1. Cranial Cavity
2. Vertebral Cavity
What does the Dorsal cavity do?
Protects the nervous system
Cranial Cavity:

1. Located
2. Encases
1. within the skull
2. the brain
Vertebral Cavity:

1. Located
2. Encases
1. within vertebral column
2. the spinal cord
Ventral Cavity 2 Subdivisions

1.
2.
1. Thoracic cavity
2. Abdominopelvic cavity
What does the Ventral Cavity do?
Houses the internal organs (viscera).
Thoracic Cavity

1. Contains
1. Heart and Lungs
Thoracic cavity is subdivided into:

1.
2.
3.
1. Pulmonary cavities
2. Mediastinum
3. Pericardial cavity
Pulmonary cavities each house a
lung
Mediastinum is b/w
the two pulmonary cavities
Pericardial cavity surrounds
the heart with the mediastinum
Abdominopelvic cavity 2 subdivisions

1.
2.
2.
1. Abdominal Cavity
2. Pelvic Cavity
The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from
the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm
Abdominal cavity contains the
stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
Pelvic cavity

1. lies within
2. contains the
1. pelvis
2. bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
The mediastinum contains what cavity?
pericardial cavity
Ventral Body Cavity Membranes:

Parietal serosa
lines internal body walls
Ventral Body Cavity Membranes:

Visceral serosa
covers the internal organs
Ventral Body Cavity Membranes:

Serous fluid
separates the serosae
Region containg fluid is called
a "cavity" or "space"
Name the regions of the abdonimopelvic cavity:

1. 12 o'clock
2. 1 o'clock
3. 3 o'clock
4. 5 o'clock
5. 6 o'clock
6. 7 o'clock
7. 9 o'clock
8. 11 o'clock
9. middle
1. Epigastric region
2. Left Hypochondriac region
3. Left Lumbar region
4. Left Iliac (inguinal) region
5. Hypogastric (pubic) region
6. Right Iliac (inguinal) region
7. Right Lumbar region
8. Right Hypochondriac region
9. Umbilical region
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Right Hypochondriac Region

1.
2.
1. Liver
2. Gallbladder
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Epigastric Region

1.
1. Stomach
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Left Hypochondriac Region

1.
1. Diaphragm
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Right Lumbar Region

1.
1. Ascending colon of large intestine
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Umbilical Region

1.
2.
1. Small Intestine
2. Transverse colon of large intestine
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Left Lumbar region

1.
1. Descending colon of large intestine
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Right Iliac region

1.
1. Cecum
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Hypogastric region

1.
2.
1. Appendix
2. Urinary Bladder
Organs of the Abdominopelvic
Left Iliac region

1.
1. Initial part of sigmoid colon
Name the four Abdominopelvic Quadrants
1. Right Upper
2. Left Upper
3. Right Lower
4. Left Lower