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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 7 divisions of biology?
Zoology, botany, microbiology, morphology, physiology, genetics, embryology
Who is the father of medicine?
Hippocrates
What is the Hippocratic oath?
oath to do no harm
who is Galen?
the first person to present the idea that disease had a cause
Who is Vesalius?
the "father of anatomy". pointed out Galen's errors
Who is William Harvey?
discovered circulation
Who is Claude Bernard?
discovered the concept of internal secretion. Endocrine system
Concept of homeostasis?
a chemical balance within the body
The levels of organization?
1. chemical level 2. cells 3. tissues 4. organs 5. organ system 6. organism
negative feedback?
an increase in the output of one system triggers a decrease of the original stimulus which then slows or stops the activity
Positive feedback?
"cascades" the response incerease the original so that the activity is sped up
Sagittal
vertical; right and left (a cut made legnth wise)
Median sagettal?
equal right and left halves
frontal
vertical; divides into anterior and posterior (front, back)
What cavities are in the dorsal cavity>
cranial and spinal
what cavities are in the vental cavity>
thoracic (digestion), and abdominopelvic (digestion)
Whats in the abdominopelvic cavity?
abdominal cavity (reproductive)
Integumentary system?
external body covering; skin
skeletal system?
bones, cartilages, legaments, and joints; framework for movement
Muscular system?
mobility, move fluids (blood urine), or other substances through the body
Nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors; controls body activity
Endocrine system?
hormones
Cardiovascular system?
heart, blood vessels- transportation, protection from infection
Lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs- cleanse the blood and location of immune cells
Immune system?
protection against infection
respiratory system?
nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs- takes in oxygen
Digestive system?
oral catity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, and rectum; breakdown of food, expel wastes
urinary (excretory) system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra- elimination of nitrogenous wastes
Reproductive system?
produce offspring 1. male- sperm, scrotum, penis; 2. female- ova, ovaries, uterins tubes, uterus, vagina
anatomical position?
body erect with feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides, palms facing forward, thumbs lateral
what cavities are in the vental cavity>
thoracic (digestion), and abdominopelvic (digestion)
Whats in the abdominopelvic cavity?
abdominal cavity (reproductive)
Integumentary system?
external body covering; skin
skeletal system?
bones, cartilages, legaments, and joints; framework for movement
Muscular system?
mobility, move fluids (blood urine), or other substances through the body
Nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors; controls body activity
Endocrine system?
hormones
Cardiovascular system?
heart, blood vessels- transportation, protection from infection
Lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs- cleanse the blood and location of immune cells
Immune system?
protection against infection
respiratory system?
nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs- takes in oxygen
Digestive system?
oral catity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, and rectum; breakdown of food, expel wastes
urinary (excretory) system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra- elimination of nitrogenous wastes
Reproductive system?
produce offspring 1. male- sperm, scrotum, penis; 2. female- ova, ovaries, uterins tubes, uterus, vagina
anatomical position?
body erect with feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides, palms facing forward, thumbs lateral
bilateral symmetry?
same on both sides
Whats the main axis?
head, torso
Main axis (midline)?
head, neck, torso
distal?
away from the main axis or midline
medial?
toward the main axis
lateral?
away from the main axis
prone?
laying face down
supine
laying face up
superior (cranial)?
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body above
Inferior (caudal)?
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a stucture or the body below
What are the necessary functions to maintain life?
maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproductive, growth
What is matter?
anything that has mass and volume
What is in the classes of matter?
elements, compounds, mixtures
Elements?
simplist forms of matter
Compounds?
two or more elements joined by chemical bonds
mixtures?
combinatin of two or more elements, compounds, etc. in which the individuals don't lose their identity
The Physical form of matter?
the distance betweent atoms determines the form of matter (gas, solid, liquid)
Atoms?
incapable of being divided
Protons?
the number of protons= atomic number
Neutrons?
Protons and neutrons= atomic weight
electrons?
negatively charged
Isotopes?
formed by transfer of electrons
Covalent bonding?
sharing electrons
diatomic elements?
formed by covalent bonds
2 forms of energy?
Kinetic (energy in motion), Potential (energy at rest)
Chemical energy?
stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Electrical energy?
movement of charged particles
Mechanical evergy?
directly involved in moving matter
Radiant energy?
travels in waves, the electromagnetic spectrum
metabolism?
all the reactions in the body that require energy
2 types of metabolism?
anabolism, catabolism
anabolism?
build up- energy is stored
catabolism?
break down- energy is released
oxidation formula?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6H2O + 6CO2
chemical reactions?
invove absorption or release of energy
types of chemical reactions?
synthesis, decomposition, replacement
Synthesis?
build up- human body
Decomposition?
broden down- sellular respiration
Replacement?
changing of partners
Factors affectiong reaction rate?
temperature, particle size, concentratino, catalysts
Properties of compounds?
chimically combined, elements always in definite ratios, elements lose their identity, build up or breakdown involves energy
acidic substance?
release h+ ions
basic substance?
release OH+ ions
types of carbs?
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccarides
monosaccharides?
glusose, fructose, galactose
mixtures?
combinatin of two or more elements, compounds, etc. in which the individuals don't lose their identity
The Physical form of matter?
the distance betweent atoms determines the form of matter (gas, solid, liquid)
Atoms?
incapable of being divided
Protons?
the number of protons= atomic number
Neutrons?
Protons and neutrons= atomic weight
electrons?
ions are atoms with a charge
Isotopes?
formed by transfer of electrons
Covalent bonding?
sharing electrons
diatomic elements?
formed by covalent bonds
2 forms of energy?
Kinetic (energy in motion), Potential (energy at rest)
Chemical energy?
stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Electrical energy?
movement of charged particles
Mechanical evergy?
directly involved in moving matter
Radiant energy?
travels in waves, the electromagnetic spectrum
metabolism?
all the reactions in the body that require energy
bilateral symmetry?
same on both sides
Whats the main axis?
head, torso
Main axis (midline)?
head, neck, torso
distal?
away from the main axis or midline
medial?
toward the main axis
lateral?
away from the main axis
prone?
laying face down
supine
laying face up
superior (cranial)?
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body above
Inferior (caudal)?
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a stucture or the body below
What are the necessary functions to maintain life?
maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproductive, growth
What is matter?
anything that has mass and volume
What is in the classes of matter?
elements, compounds, mixtures
Elements?
simplist forms of matter
Compounds?
two or more elements joined by chemical bonds
disaccharides?
sucrose, maltose, lactose
Polysaccharides?
starch, cellulose, glycogen
lipids?
reserve energy supply
proteins?
1. composed of amino acids 2. functions of proteins
DNA deoxyribunucleic acid?
most complex organic molicule known to exist
Who discovered DNA?
james watson and francis crick
hydrogen bonds?
hold the ladder in DNA together
RNA?
one less oxygen than DNA