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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the
central principle
of physiology?
The normal function
of physiological systems
is to maintain fairly
constant internal conditions.
Define homeostasis.
A stable internal environment.
Define homeostatic regulation.
Adjustments in physiological systems
that are responsible for preserving
homeostasis/a stable internal
List some vital characteristics that must be maintained within relatively narrow limits required for body function.
The mechanisms
responsible for
controlling levels of:
-oxygen -carbon dioxide -glucose
-pH -blood pressure, etc.
The two general mechanisms
involved in homeostatic regulation.

-Extrinsic regulation
Define Autoregulation.
General mechanism involved in homeostatic regulation when the activities of the cell, tissue, organ,
or system change automatically
when there is some change in its
Example of Autoregulation.
When cells within a tissue need more
oxygen, they release chemicals that
cause an increase in blood flow to the
area, providing more oxygen to the
Define Extrinsic Regulation.
Homeostatic regulation which
results from the activities of the
nervous or endocrine system,
organ systems that can control or
adjust the activities of many
different systems simultaneously.
Examples of Extrinsic Regulation.
-When you are exercising, your NS
issues commands that increase
the HR so that blood will circulate

-NS reduces blood flow to organs,
such as the digestive tract, that are
relatively inactive (oxygen in
circulating blood thus saved for the
active muscles.)
What kind of responses do the
Nervous System and
Endocrine System regulate?
-The NS directs rapid, ST, and very
specific responses.

-The Endocrine System releases
hormones (responses not
immediately apparent, but when
effects appear, they often persist
for days or weeks.
Define Hormones.
Chemical messengers.
Example of Endocrine Regulation
or Function
-Regulation of blood volume and

-Adjustments of organ system function
during starvation or stress.
What are the factors involved
in Regulatory Mechanisms?
-Receptor (sensor sensitive to that
particular stimulus)
-Effector (that which engages in
activity which has an
effect on the same
-Control/Integration Center
(between receptor and
effector - receives
information from
receptor and controls
Define Set Point.
Optimal level for the
controlled condition.
Negative Feedback
Homeostatic regulation mechanism
where an effector activated by the
control center acts to eliminate the
stimulus or reduce its magnitude.
Give an example of Negative Feedback.
Define Thermoregulation.
Mechanism involving the altering of the
relationship between heat loss, which
occurs primarily on the body surface,
and heat production, which occurs in
all active tissues.