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161 Cards in this Set

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Psychological Disorder
psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response
phobia
psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of and object or situation
psychopathology
scientific study of psychological disorders
scientist-practitioner model
expectation that mental health professionals will apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment
presenting problem
original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem.
clinical description
details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts and feelings of an individual that make-up a particular disorder
prevalence
number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time.
incidence
number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific time period.
course
pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
prognosis
predicted future development of a disorder over time
etiology
cause or source of a disorder
psychosocial treatment
treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors (such as family experience) and on psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral and interpersonal methods.
moral therapy
19th century psychosocial approach to treatment that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments
mental hygiene movment
mid-19th century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment
psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy which emphasizes exploration of and insight into unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud
behaviorism
Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
unconscious
part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person
catharsis
rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
psychoanalytic model
Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces.
id
in psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychic entity present at birth representing basic drives
ego
in psychoanalysis, the psychic entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.
superego
in psychoanalysis, the psychic entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society
intrapsychic conflicts
in psychoanalysis, the struggle among the id, ego and superego
defense mechanisms
common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observes in response to particular situation. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes origination in the ego.
psychosexual stages of development
in psychoanalysis, the sequences of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where gratification is maximal at that time
neurosis
obsolete psychodynamic term for pschological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflict and the anxiety they cause
ego psychology
derived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasized the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts
object relations
modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them.
free association
psychoanalytic therapy thechniqu intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring
dream analysis
psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts
psychoanalyst
therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an MD or PhD degree and recieving additional specialized postdoctoral training
transference
psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents
psychodynamic psychotherapy
contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems
self-actualizing
process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
person-centered therapy
therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor primarily directs the course of discussion seeking self-discovery and self responsibility
unconditional positive regard
acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions with out judgement or condemnation
behavioral model
explanation of human behavior including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
classical conditioning
fundamental leraning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus) after repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response
extinction
learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing
introspection
Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked
systematic desensitization
behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation
behavioral therapy
Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems . It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change
reinforcement
In operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence; negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviors may result from their reinforcement or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors
shaping
In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner
multidimensional integrative approach
Approach to the study of psychopathology, which holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
genes
long DNA molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes
diathesis-stress model
hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressfull conditions are required to produce a disorder
vulnerability
susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
reciprocal gene-environement model
hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposistion for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environemntal risk factors that promote the disorder
neuroscience
study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts and emotions
neuron
Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information
synaptic cleft
space between nerve cells where transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitters
chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or defficiency is involved in several psychological disorders
hormone
Chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
brain circuits
neruortransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
reuptake
Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
agonist
Chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects
antagonist
chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter
inverse agonist
chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter
Serotonin
Neurotransmitter involved in information processing coordination of movement inhibition and restraing it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual and aggressive behaviors all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a reange of behaviors and emotions especially generalized anxiety
norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter that is active in the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because of its role in the body's alarm reaction, it may also contribute in general and indirectly to panic attacks and anxiety and mood disorders
dopamine
neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure seeking behaviors (this balancing serotonin) A relative excess is implicated in schizophrenia (through contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple) and it's deficit is involved in Parkinson's disease
cognitive science
filed of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store and retrieve information
learned helplessness
Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether in reality they do or not)
modeling
learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and the consequences of that behavior
prepared learning
certain associations can be learned more readily than others because this ability has been adaptive for evolution
implicit memory
condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events even though he or she acts in response to them
fight of flight response
biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources to resist or flee the threat
emotion
pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by characteristic physiological response
mood
enduring period of emotionality
affect
conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time
equifinality
developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several different causes.
clinical assessment
Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder
diagnosis
process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
reliability
degree to which a measurement is consistent for ex. over time or among different raters
validity
degree to which a technique actually measures what it purports to measure
standardization
process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occassions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating it's findings, and comparing these with data for large numbers of people
mental status exam
relatively coarse preliminary test of a client's judgement, orientation to time and place and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview
behavioral asessement
measuring, observing and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the clients' thoughts, feelings and behavior in the actual problem situation or context
projective tests
psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity
personality inventories
Self-reported questionaires that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them
intelligent quotient (IQ)
score on an intelligence test estimating a person's deviation from average test performance
neuropsychological testing
ASsessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks
false positive
assessment error in which pathology is reported when none is actually present
false negative
assessment error in which no pathology is noted when it is actually present
neuroimaging
sophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function
psychophysiological assessment
measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal
electroencephalogram (EEG)
measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp
classification
assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics
taxonomy
System of naming and classification in science
nosology
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena
nomenclature
in a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology , these include mood disorders or eating disorders
classical categorical approach
classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders each with a different known cause
dimensional approach
method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either or, or all or none basis
prototypical approach
system for categorizing disorders using essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics
comorbidity
the presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time
labeling
applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than to his or her behavior
hypothesis
educated guess or statement to be tested by research
research design
plan of experimentation, used to test a hypothesis
dependent variable
in an experimental research study, the phenomenon that is measured and expected to influence the dependent variable
independent variable
phenomenon that is manipulated by the experimenter in a research study and expected to influence the dependent variable
internal validity
extent to which the results of a research study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out
external validity
extent to which research study findings generalize or apply to people and settings not involved in the study
testability
ability of a hypothesis for example, to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful
confound
any factor occurring in a research study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied
control group
group of individuals in a research study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment recieved by the experimental group: the presence allows a comparison of the differential effects of the treatment
randomization
method for placing individuals into research groups that assures each one of an equal chance of being assigned to any group, to eliminate any systematic differences across groups
analog model
approach to research employing subjects who are similar to clinical clients allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions
generalizability
extend to which research results apply to a range of individuals not included in the study
statistical significance
probability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small
clinical significance
degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems
case study method
Research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. The method does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships and findings can be generalized only with great caution
correlation
degree to which two variable are associated
positive correlation
association between two variable in which one increases as the other increases
correlation coefficient
computed statistics reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables. It can range from +1 through 0 (indicating no association) to -1 with the absolute value indicating the strength and the sign reflecting the direction
negative correlation
Association between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases
directionality
possibility that, when 2 variables, A and B, are correlated , variable A causes B or B causes A
epidemiology
Psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution and consequences of disorders in populations
experiment
research method that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explanations of any observed effects
placebo effect
behavior change resulting from the person's expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation
placebo control group
in an outcome experiment, a control group that does not recieve the experimental manipulation but is given a similar procedure with an identical expectation of change, allowing the researcher to assess any placebo effect
double blind control
Procedure in outcome studies that prevent bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment known who is recieving treatment and who is recieving placebo
comparative treatment research
Outcome research that contrasts two or more treatment methods to determine which is most effective
single-case experimental design
Research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause and effect conclusions but with limited generalizability
variability
degree of change in a phenomenon over time
trend
the direction of change of a behavior or behaviors
level
degree of behavior change with different interventions
withdrawal design
removing a treatment to not whether it has been effective. In a single-case experimental design, a behavior is measured, an IV is introduced and then intervention is withdrawn because the behavior continues to be measured throughout any effects of the intervention can be noted, also called reversal design
baseline
measured rate of a behavior before introduction of an intervention that allows comparison and assessment of the effects of the intervention
multiple baseline
single case experimental research design in which measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations. A particular intervention is introduced for each at different times. If behavior change is coincident with each introduction, this is a strong evidence that the intervention cause the change
phenotype
observable characteristics or behaviors of an individual
genotype
specific genetic makeup of an individual
human genome project
ongoing scientific attempt to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes
family studies
genetic studies that examine patterns of traits and behaviors among relatives
proband
In genetics research the individual displaying the trait or characteristic being studied. Also known as index case
adoptions studies
In genetics research, studies of first degree relatives reared in different families and environments. If they share common characteristics such as a disorder, this finding suggests that those characteristics have a genetic component
twin studies
In genetic research, comparisons of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common characteristics such as a disorder; even if they were reared in different environments, this is strong evidence of genetic involvement in those characteristics
genetic linkage studies
Studies that seek to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker; this helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder
association studies
research strategies for comparing genetic markers in groups of people with and without a particular disorder
genetic marker
inherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known
cross-sectional design
methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing different individuals of different ages
cohort
participants in each age group of a cross sectional research study
cohort effect
observation that people of different age groups also differ in their values and experiences
retrospective information
literally "the view back", data collected by examining records or recollections of the past. It is limited by the accuracy, validity and thoroughness of the sources
longitudinal design
systematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time
cross-generational effect
limit to the generalizability of longitudinal research because the group under study may differ from others in culture and experience
sequential design
combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods involving repeated study of different cohorts over time
informed consent
ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a research study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their role in it
civil commitment laws
Legal proceedings that determine a person has a mental illness and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily
mental illness
Term formerly used to mean psychological disorder but less preferred because it implies that the causes of the disorder can be found in a medical disease process
dangerousness
tendency to violence that contrary to popular opinion is not more likely among mental patients
deinstitutionalization
systematic removal of people with severe mental illness or mental retardation out of institutions like psychiatric hospitals
transinstitutionalization
movement of people with severe mental illness from large psychiatric hospitals to smaller group residences
criminal commitment
legal procedure by which a person who is found no guilty of a crime by reason of insanity must be confined in a psychiatric hospital
diminished capacity
inability of a person to understand the nature of his behavior such that there can be no criminal intent
competence
ability of legal defendants to participate in their own defense and understand the changes and the roles of the trial participants
duty to warn
mental health professionals responsibility to break confidentiality and notify the potential victim whom a client has specifically threatened
expert witness
person who because of special training and experience is allowed to offer opinion testimony in legal trials
clinical efficacy (axis)
one of a proposed set of guidelines for evaluation clinical interventions on the evidence of their effectiveness
clinical utility (axis)
One of a proposed set of guidelines for evaluating clinical interventions by whether they can be applied effectively and cost effectively in real clinical settings