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57 Cards in this Set

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Vascular tissue that forms hollow vessels that transport substances
Xylem
Plant that absorbs water through cell walls instead of tube like structures
Nonvascular
A plant with one cotyledon (leaf)
monocot
small openings in the surface of most plant leaves
stomata
Threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground
rhizoids
Provides structure and support in cell walls
Cellulose
Vascular tissue that produces xylem and phloem cells as a plant grows
Cambium
A plant with two cotyledons (leaves)
dicot
Vascular tissue that forms tubes that transport sugar and water
phloem
Vascular plants that do not flower
gymnosperm
Flowering vascular plants
angiosperm
With tube-like structures that move minerals and water through the plant
vascular
Waxy protective layer that covers stems, leaves and flower parts
cuticle
First organisms to grown in new or disturbed areas. They break down rock and build soil
Pioneer species
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing
guard cells
Plant adaptations include the development of water resistant what?
Spores
What system was developed by Linnaeus and gives each species a 2-word name
Binomial nomendature
What two things show that plants and green algae probably had a common ancestor
Chlorophyll and carotenoids
What is the substance in plants that make them green?
chlorophyll
How do cell walls and cuticle help plants live in deserts
They slow down water loss
How do scientists study evolution?
They look at fossils
How is life on land advantageous for plants
they have more sunlight and carbon dioxide
What provides plant cells with structure and protection
Cell walls
process where plants use chlorophyll to make food
photosynthesis
Chlorophyll is found in a cell structure called what
chloroplast
What are the red, yellow or orange pigments that are also used for photosynthesis
carotenoids
To reproduce, plants developed what two things
spores and seeds
Water is absorbed and distributed directly through what
cell membranes
How do seedless plants reproduce
spores
What nonvascular plant is a green, leaflike growth arranged around a central stalk
mosses
What non-vascular plant has flattened, leaflike bodies
liverworts
What nonvascular plant has only one chloroplast in each of their cells
hornworts
Which plants grow thicker and bigger, vascular or non-vascular
Vascular
Vascular plants have what three parts
stems, leaves and roots
What are fern leaves called
fronds
What kind of leaves do club mosses have
needlelike
which vascular plants have jointed stems with a hollow center
horsetails
what is used for weaving material and basketry
ferns
a thin layer of cells on the upper and lower surface of a leaf
epidermis
each stoma is surrounded by two what that open and close it
guard cells
What layer contains the chloroplasts were most food is made
Palisade Layer
What is the loosely arranged layer of loosely arranged cells and air
Spongy layer
Stems allow the movement of materials between what two plant parts
Leaves and roots
what are the two kinds of stems
herbaceous and woody
which stems are soft and green
herbaceous
what stems are hard and rigid
woody
What are the three kinds of vascular tissue
xylem, phloem and cambium
which tissue transports water from the roots throughout the plan
Xylem tissue
which tissue produces xylem and phloem cells
cambium tissue
which tissue moves food from where it is made to other parts of the plant
phloem tissue
Gymnosperms have no what
flowers
what are the four division of gymnosperms
conifers, cycads, ginkgoes and gnetophytes
conifers reproduce by male and female what
cones
what are the two groups of angiosperms
monocots and dicots
What kind of angiosperm has a life cycle of 1 year
annual
what angiosperm has a life cycle of about 2 years
biennial
what angiosperm takes more than two years to grow to maturity
perennials