Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the Constitutional delegate who was instrumental in creating the Constitution.
Jame Madison (10)
the governor of Massachusetts during the ratification of the Constitution who persuaded the Massachusetts delegates to approve the Constitution without the Bill of Rights.
John Hancock (10)
a formal listing of the basic rights of citizens.
Bill of Rights (10)
the winner of the first presidential election in 1789 who received every electoral vote.
George Washington (10)
the Massachusetts delegate to the Constitutional convention who was chosen to be vice president to George Washington.
John Adams (10)
the five basic freedoms of religion, of speech, of the press, and of assembly, and the right to petition the government considered by many people to be the most important part of the Bill of Rights.
1st Amendment (10)
the landmark case heard by the Supreme Court in 1971 which challenged a Pennsylvania law that used public tax money to pay for books and teachers' salaries at private religious schools.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (10)
a New York City printer who was arrested in 1735 for printing reports that the governor of New York had taken bribes.
John Peter Zenger (10)
this landmark Supreme Court case involved a man who had been convicted in Texas of burning an American flag as a form of protest.
Texas v. Johnson (10)
the landmark Supreme Court case began when comedian Dick Gregory led a protest march to the home of Chicago's mayor and residents in the neighborhood began throwing eggs and shouting insults at the marchers.
Gregory v. Chicago (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that guaranteed the citizens right to bear arms which is much debated and highly controversial.
2nd Amendment (10)
a modern-day example or equivalent of an organized militia.
National Guard (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that guarantees the citizens to refuse to open their homes to soldiers.
3rd Amendment (10)
to be housed, as with soldiers.
quartering (10)
a member of the Supreme Court who, referring to the 3rd Amendment said, "a man's house shall be his own castle, privileged against all civil and military intrusion."
Justice Joseph Story (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment guaranteeing the protection of the people and their belongings from "unreasonable searches and seizures."
4th Amendment (10)
the act of forcibly taking control of a person or property.
seizure (10)
an order from a judge that authorizes police or other officials to take a certain action such as searching someone's property.
warrant (10)
a member of the Supreme Court, referring to the purpose of protections under the 4th Amendment said that, "the right to be left alone - the most comprehensive of rights and the right most valued by civilized men."
Justice Louis Brandeis (10)
the longest amendment in the Bill of Rights, it lists five important rights of citizens involved with the justice system.
5th Amendment (10)
a group of citizens who hear the government's evidence and decide whether it justifies a trial.
Grand Jury (10)
the term used when a person who is tried for a crime and found not guilty cannot be tried again for the same crime.
"double jeopardy" (10)
the act of giving testimony that can be used against oneself.
self-incrimination (10)
the requirement that the police should remind people of their rights to remain silent before they start to question them and that anything they do say can be used against them at a trial.
"Miranda warning" (10)
people who are required to defend themselves in a legal action; an example is an accused person who is put on trial for a crime.
defendants (10)
the term or phrase used by defendants testifying in court in refusing to answer questions that might damage their case.
"taking the Fifth" (10)
the term used to guarantee that the government must follow clear rules and act reasonably as it carries out the law.
due process (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that is designed to provide accused persons with fair trials.
6th Amendment (10)
according to the 6th Amendment, trials may not be held in secret and citizens have a right to attend trials to make sure that justice is being done.
"Public" (10)
according to the 6th Amendment, jurors are not prejudiced or influenced against the defendant.
"impartial" (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that guarantees that in all but the most minor cases, people involved in a civil case have a right to a jury trial and that after a jury decides the facts of a case, no judge can overrule the jury's decision.
7th Amendment (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that protects an accused person's rights both before and after trial.
8th Amendment (10)
money or property given to the court to hold until an accused person shows up at trial.
bail (10)
a member of the Supreme Court who, referring to "cruel and unusual punishments" said, "a penalty that was permissible at one time in our nation's history is not necessarily permissible today."
Justice Thurgood Marshall (10)
a landmark Supreme Court case in 1976 in which the court ruled that "the punishment of death for the crime of murder does not under all circumstances violate the 8th Amendment."
Gregg v. Georgia (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that says that even though "certain rights" are used in the Constitution, other rights not listed there are also "retained by the people" such as the right to privacy.
9th Amendment (10)
the Bill of Rights amendment that guarantees the protection of the states from excessive federal power.
10th Amendment (10)
a landmark Supreme Court case in 1816 that gave Congress the power to charter a federal bank and that when state and national power conflict, national power is supreme.
McCullogh v. Maryland (10)
an officer of the Baltimore branch of the bank who refused to pay the tax because the state could drive the bank out of business if the tax were set high.
James McCullogh (10)