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52 Cards in this Set

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Aseptic Technique

Used to maximize and maintain asepsis.

Disinfection

The destruction of vegetative forms of bacteria but not the spores. Organisms may still remain in the disinfected field, but are altered to a state where they are no longer harmful to the patient.

Sterilization

The destruction of all organisms and spores on an object.

Chlorhexadine

Antiseptic scrub. Rapid onset, long residual activity. Synergistic with alcohol.

Iodine

Rapid onste, 4-6hr residual activity. Activity destroyed by alcohol. Potential for skin irritation.

Autoclave Sterilization

The standard for autoclave sterilization is exposure to saturated steam at 121°C/250°F, for a minimum of 15 minutes at 15 psi.

What is the minimum sterilization time?

Ethylene Oxide Sterilization

Used for items that cannot be autoclaved. The gas destroys metabolic pathways within the cells of bacteria by alkylation and is capable of killing all microorganisms. Cycles run for 12 hours or 24 hours.

Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma Sterilization

Safe alternative to EO sterilization. Inactivates mycobacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, and viruses. Free radicals are created by this, which kill the microorganisms. Cycle takes 1 hour.

Cold Sterilization

The soaking of instruments in chlorhexadine solution, benzalkonium or glutaraldehyde. Only for minor procedures. Soak for a minimum of 3 hours.

Used to clamp small vessels.

Halstead-Mosquito Forceps

Used to clamp ot occlude small capillaries that are/can be cut.

Hartman Mosquito Forceps

Used to occlude small to medium sized vessels.

Kelly Forceps

She dont go all the way.

Used to clamp large tissue bundles. Placed perpendicular to prevent blood flow.

Rochester-Carmalt Forceps

Used to pick up, hold and manuever delicate tissue. There are teeth.

Brown-Adson Thumb Forceps

For delicate tissues. Causes minimal trauma.

Adson Tissue Forceps

Used to secure drapes to patient by means of a small puncture.

Backhaus Towel Clamp

Used to secure draps to a patient without puncturing skin or instruments.

Lorna Towel Clamp

Assist in tying and cutting sutures.

Olson-Hegar Needle Holder

Used to drive suture needles through tissue.

Mayo-Hegar Needle Holder

Used to perform blunt dissection and to cut through bulky connective tissue.

Mayo Scissors

Used to blunt dissect or cut soft tissue.

Metzenbaum Scissors

Used to remove bandages and other dressings.

Lister Bandage Scissors

Used to remove sutures.

Spencer Delicate Stitch Scissors

Hand-held retractor used to hold open a wound or incision.

Senn Rake Retractor

Hand-held retractor used to hold open wound.

Army-Navy Retractor

Self-retaining retractor to maintain muscle retraction.

Weitlaner Retractor

Self-retaining retractor used to maintain wound exposure.

Gelpi Retractor

Used to hold the abdominal wall open for surgical procedures.

Balfour Retractor

Used to hold open the thoracic wall.

Finochietto Retractor

Used to remove or break up small chunks of bone, cartilage or fibrous tissue.

Ruskin Roungeur

Used together to set pins or cut through and shape bone.

Bone Mallet and Osteotome

Used to roughly suction fluid. Good for esophogus and large volumes of fluid.

Yankauer Suction Tip

Used to delicately suction fluids. Good for orthopedic surgeries.

Frasier Suction Tip

Used to suction fluids mainly in abdominal surgeries.

Poole Suction Tip

Used to scrape out cancellous bone from the medullary cavity so as to perform bone grafts or to scrap osteochondrosis dessicans (OCD) lesions.

Bone Curette

Used to retrieve the uterine horn within a small animal.

Snook's Ovariohysterectomy Hook

Used to perform biopsies or to drill small holes into the skull or sinus.

Trephine

Used to occlude and hold intestines.

Doyen Intestinal Forcep

Used to secure towels and drapes.

Jones Towel Forcep

Used to pry periosteum or muscle from the bone surface.

Periosteal Elevator

Name absorbable sutures. (Synthetic and natural).

Synthetic: vicryl, monocryl, PDS.



Natural: chromic gut.

Name non-absorbable sutures. (Synthetic and natural).

Synthetic: ethibond, ethilon, braunamid, flexon.



Natural: silk.

Name some pros/cons between natural and synthetic.

Natural: Cheaper. Better for heart and eye surgeries.



VS



Synthetic: Less likely to see an allergic reaction.

Name stage I and stage II signs of labor.

Stage I: Restlessness, nesting behavior, panting, trembling, temperature drops to 99° ~24hrs before stage II.



Stage II: Active pushing.

How much time between each pup during parturition?

20-60 minutes.

What breeds are predisposed for dystocia?

Brachycephalic, tea-cup, small breeds.

What is the criteria for intervention in the case of dystocia?

Greater than 1 hour between babies (with active pushing), >2 hours between deliveries without active pushing, pregnancy longer than 65d, partially delivered fetus >15 minutes.

What commonly causes rectal prolapse?

Enteritis, FB/ Urethral obstruction, prostatic hyperplasia, tenesmus, parasites.

What does TPLO stand for?

Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

What does TTA stand for?

Tibial Turberosity Advancement.

What is MPL correction?

Correction of medial patellar luxation.

What are the types of fractures? Describe.

Simple: not perforated through the skin.



Compound: has perforated through the skin.



Displaced: bone is not aligned correctly.



Comminuted: shattered.



Oblique: diagonal break.