What is Plato's notion of a soul? Essays
Plato gave the idea of the pre-existence of the soul, meaning that the soul existed before birth. Before the soul fuses with a new body, the soul is in the invisible realm where the soul has perfect knowledge and absolute forms. The soul retains all the knowledge of the previous life but forgets it at birth. The soul belongs to a world of ideas and interacts with the world of perception through the body.
The second phase is death or the post-existence of the soul, where the body and the soul are separated from each other. The soul goes back to the invisible realm with all the knowledge it acquired while living in the world of senses waiting to be “transferred” to another body. The body is a tool for the soul to interact with the visible world. The soul keeps being the “I” and the reasoning and the desire to inhabit a new body.
The third phase is that the soul is not composed of parts, the soul is simple, changeless and participates in what is non-material, so it cannot be changed or destroyed therefore it is immortal. The structures of the soul stand for different parts of the body. Plato also names these structures in a social system. The first part is appetites