Cancer has been seen in humans as one of the most potentially fatal diseases for thousands of years and only in the most recent couple of centuries have we discovered that most information necessary to bring us to today’s understanding and knowledge (Kenny 2007, Weinberg 1996) was achieved by extensive research of cells, DNA, and epidemiology studies. As we currently know, cancer is acknowledged as having over a hundred different diseases, and is known to be the result of mutations of the genes and almost similarly to DNA, which are responsible for the amount of cell division and production (Kenny 2007). Restraint of cell growth modulators can be a direct lead and result in certain tumours being developed and subsequently allow these
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(Schulz 2005). On the other hand however, endogenous procedures, which result in cancer and provoke mutations comprise genetic disposition – therefore defined as hereditary pre-disposition to mutations – cell and DNA damages during normal cell division in cell cycle and also certain metabolism functions produced by carcinogens. (Knowles and Selby 2005, Schulz 2005).
DNA, also known as, Deoxyribonucleic acid, contains all the information we need for our bodies to function and thus develop. DNA is composed of sequences that have four nucleotides: adenine, cytosine, thymine and lastly, guanine. Genes, which contain DNA, have the role to act as instructions in order to create protein molecules (Noble 2008) They translate sequences in combinations of three nucleotides at a time, called codons, leading to sequences of amino acids, which then in turn create proteins. (Noble 2008, Kenny 2007). The functions of the proteins created however, vary dependent on the gene itself and the translation of the nucleotides. (Noble 2008). Proteins are responsible for the making up of cells, tissues and the interactions that occur between them both. Because of this known importance, any alterations and mutations that ensue within the gene itself creates the possibility for the ability of the gene to translate to be affected as a result. Furthermore, it has