The Feasibility of Different Techniques for Providing Fresh Water to Arid Regions in the World

1356 Words Mar 14th, 2013 6 Pages
The feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions in the world

1.0 Introduction

Water is the most valuable and indispensable resource for all forms of life. People need it for every activity: domestic use, agriculture and industry. Access to fresh water is regarded as a universal human right (United Nations Committee in Economics, Social and Cultural Rights, 2003). Drought has become an increasingly important problem in many parts of the world. Water scarcity is most common in arid and semiarid regions of the world, which cover one third of the Earth’s land surface (Smallwood, 2011). UNESCO and the Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory (IMET) have launched “The Water Programme for Africa,
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Today, millions of people still lack access to basic sanitation and every year many of them die from diseases related with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene. According to The Water Project statistic’s, nearly 1 out of every 5 deaths under the age of 5 is due to water-related disease, such as cholera, diarrhoea and malari. Current predictions (UNWWAP, 2003) show that more than 20 developing countries will experience water shortage by 2025. Most of this countries are found in Africa and the Middle East.

2.1 Water problems in Africa

Water problems mostly take place in Africa, where it is predicted that 300 million people are affected by water shortages. (UNWWAP, UNESCO 2003) The University of Cape Town studied that climate change have a huge impact on Africa. For example, rain shortages have already caused many problems there. In East Africa more than 3 million people face hunger this year, because there hasn’t been any rain for three month. (BBC, 2011) Most people in Africa live in rural areas and they are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods. Internal renewable freshwater resources average about 3 950 km3 per year. This amounts to about 10 per cent of the freshwater resources available globally and closely resembles Africa’s share of the world population at 12 per cent (Donkor, 2003). Three of four Africans use the ground water as their main water supply. The ground water is not always available, it accounts for only 15% of the

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