Extrinsic Motivation Theory

Decent Essays
Principal-agent (PA) scholars usually focus on the difficulty with getting agents to expend more effort, known as the moral hazard problem. Even though agents and principals may share a common goal, agents have personal incentives to increase their own self-interests. These incentives can lead to tension between the goals of the principal and the execution of the task by the agents (Miller 2005). Agents may prefer to shirk and consequently the principal will suffer.

PA scholars may argue that implementation varies because of the amount of effort agents expend. Given this, the presence or absence of solutions to increase the probability of implementation in accordance to the principal’s expectations may explain implementation. Solutions often
…show more content…
To outline the range of tactics available, I use a framework found within the work of self-determination theory (SDT). In order to study human motivation, Deci and Ryan (2000, 2008) outline a range of possible variations in human motivation and place them on a continuum that ranges from non-self-determined to self-determined motivation. Broadly speaking, non-self-determined forms of motivation, otherwise known as extrinsic motivation, refer to less internalized forms of motivation. This means that an individual’s motivation is contingent upon external incentives such as compensation. On the opposite side of the spectrum are self-determined forms of motivation, otherwise known as intrinsic motivation. This type of motivation is more internalized, meaning that an individual is motivated by internal reasons such as believing in the tasks themselves (Pelletier and Sharp 2008). Below I outline the different mobilization techniques that principals can use based on the differences in human …show more content…
A lack of information concerning implementation in combination with the number of agents involved in the process can lead to coordination problems amongst agents. Although all agents have a common interest in either reducing the threat of violent extremism or implementing CVE programming, these agents may have different interpretations of how to do so. Agents may disagree not only on the types of programs to implement, but also on deciding where to obtain funding from, deciding what organizations/individuals to include in the implementation of the plan, deciding when and where to actually implement the plan, and deciding how to allocate tasks (Demant et al 2009). Moreover, the agents involved in the process may not have previously worked together, which can complicate coordination efforts. Without prior collaboration, agents are less likely to correctly assess the preferences and working styles of others within the community, which can make coordination more difficult. When decision-makers are unable to coordinate their actions, implementation is

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    However, researchers argue that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation also influence each other. The searcher Deci, claims that in some cases extrinsic motivators can decrease intrinsic motivation. He argues that if money is administered contingently, it decreases intrinsic motivation. The searcher Amabile, reacts to this discussion by stating that although extrinsic motivation can work in opposition to intrinsic motivation. She also states in her research that both intrinsic and extrinsic values can motivate employees to do their work.…

    • 1379 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Collaborative Inertia

    • 2045 Words
    • 9 Pages

    When people are motivated by goals, sometimes they will use unethical ways to reach it. Sometimes even though they feel in their achieving their goals, they may report that they have met the goal. Distorted risk preferences: In distorted risk preferences, people motivated by specific or challenging goals adopt riskier strategies than goals with fewer challenges. Reduced intrinsic motivation: When there is problem embedded in goals, goals may not be reached which will leads to reduce in satisfaction that will influence how people will view themselves and have important consequences for future behavior. Too many goals: When there are a lot of goals, it may cause problem for employees and they tend to focus on only one goal and some goals are more likely to be ignored than others.…

    • 2045 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    B. Externally, the individuals are motivated when they are engaged in the work for a specific goals other than the work itself (Ambile, 1993). Ambile (1993) mentioned that the staff can be motivated internally or externally to perform certain tasks and that external and intrinsic motivation can reinforce each other, while Deci (1972) argued that there are some cases, external stimuli may also reduce the self-motivation. Moreover, Fornham (1998) mentioned that the researchers see that the people do not have equal enthusiastic, thus, the employees are also different. 3. Conclusions This paper focuses critically on the employees’ differences and the role of motivation to improve the performance which leads to achieve the individual and organizational…

    • 1550 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Rugby Motivation

    • 1855 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Second, the power of motivation effected the action’s forms, directions, intensity and duration (Meyer, Becker & Vandenberghe, 2004). Beck (2004) stated that motivation focused on our movements or actions and what factors determines them. The factors may be internal or external. The precondition of motivation was a goal or desirable result that we expected or avoided. Keller (cited in Dickinson, 1995, p. 168) also stated that “Motivation refers to the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they will exert in that respect”.…

    • 1855 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    As what the theory suggests, when an individual is presented with information that creates conflict from what they initially believe in, they will use dissonance-reduction strategies to regain balance, especially if this will affect their self-esteem. They may either be uncomfortable enough with the conflict to be motivated to achieve consonance or they may avoid information and situation that might increase the…

    • 1447 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    This theory posits that different types of comparisons (i.e., comparing the self to some “idealized” form of the self or comparing the self to some “ought-to-be” form of the self) lead to different emotional outcomes (Higgins, 1987). These emotional outcomes include two separate classes of emotion: agitation-based and dejection-based feelings (Higgins, 1987). Each class of emotion requires different organizational or managerial reactions in order to dissipate (discussed in detail later; Higgins, 1987). Agitationbased emotions are linked to one comparing herself to what she “ought-to-be”, and imply fear of punishment or retribution. Dejection-related emotions are linked to one comparing herself to what she “ideally-could-be”, and imply depression or disappointment.…

    • 3884 Words
    • 16 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Inherently, escalation of commitment entails making choices to invest in some areas that show signs of failure within organizations (Razzi, 2012). Pointedly, it may be argued that the allocation of resources such as time, money, and energy to such failing sectors may be as a result of some underlying perceptions that decision makers in such organizations may have a rationalization for their actions. For instance, the leaders may opt for such investments since they may be having the self-driven need to remain consistent in the way they run their business or because of the standpoint that the continued provision of such allocations would end up making the poorly performing sections have successful outcomes. Tellingly, the decision to invest in loss making ventures may result in such institutions experiencing reduced returns and possible collapse decrease in turnovers that are vital for the accumulation and distribution of resources to run the organizations. In this view, therefore, it is clear that the phenomenon of self-justification applies to the essential element of decision making within organizations in any part of the world.…

    • 1097 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Risk Management Strategies

    • 1067 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Including running scenarios to test and run failure mode and effects analysis. This is critical for GI as the potential reputational risk is large concern for GI. The risk adverse nature of the group around any potential of reputational risk as a result of the TPP, would mean the complete service the partner provides needs to be at a level that will not adversely affect the reputation of the CBA group. The pre-mortem analysis also highlights a risk of leverage by suppliers, which could bring this strategy undone. Once GI entering into an outsourcing agreement it possible that success will attract competitors to look for similar arrangements, increasing the cost of services as suppliers gain more market power.…

    • 1067 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    According to research put forth by Deci, Ryan, and Guay (2013), behavior that is conducted “out of interest or enjoyment” is considered intrinsic, while behavior that is “motivated by values that are fully internalized and integrated” is considered extrinsic. Balanced motivation is called “emotion-motivated behaviors” This implies that behavior is “well integrated.” In the self-determination theory, there are three basic psychological needs- competency,…

    • 818 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    What is Conflict? According to Shearouse (2011), conflict can be defined as “when what you want, need, or expect interferes with what I want, need or expect”. In addition, conflict is when people’s differences negatively affect the productivity, quality, service, or working relationship. Conflict is often seen as a negative thing, however research shows us it can improve productivity and performance and strengthen teamwork. If people focus on the negative aspect of conflict, more than likely there will not be a solution.…

    • 1274 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays

Related Topics