Racial Identity And Identity Development Theories Essay
According to Chavez and DiBrito (vhbhb) racial and ethnic identity are vital to individual and collective identity overall framework. For some minority groups, racial identity is expressed in very conscious ways. Two conflicting cultural and social influences often trigger this manifestation. On the other hand the dominant groups, especially the white Americans, manifest racial identity mostly in unconscious ways expressed in their behaviors, beliefs, values and assumptions (gbhh).
There are several theories describing the development of racial identity however this paper is going to focus on two theories; these are Atkinson, Morten and Sue’s Racial and Cultural identity development theor, and Helm’s Model of White Identity Development.
Atkinson, Morten and Sue (1983) Racial and Cultural identity development theory
This was the first theory to describe the development of racial identity and served as a foundation of other racial and ethnicity development models. It mainly focuses on minority identity. The model has five stages. The first stage is conformity. At this stage one identifies with the values of dominant (white) group more strongly than her or his own group, which results in self-depreciating beliefs and attitudes; it further leads to admiration, respect, emulation, and “superiorization” of the dominant group values.
The next stage is known as dissonance. Here one starts being confused and starts questioning some values and…