Pathway To Equality Chapter 1 Analysis

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In Chapter 1: Pathway to Equality: The Determination to Change, Ladino discussed the unequal events and patterns that African Americans began remarking for a social change. Ladino mentioned how the caste system downgraded African Americans’ living conditions and limited their education and professions. In addition, scientists analyzed the psychological causes and effects that segregation caused in children. In sum, Ladino illustrated the unequal treatments and living conditions that led to the civil rights movement.
African Americans noted that “separate but equal” in Plessey v. Ferguson expressed racism, and believed that the best way to accomplish their civil rights was through public education. Relative to public education, the whites selected
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Ferguson court decision in order to diminish segregation to gain true equality. Ladino concentrated on court cases that have revealed the unconstitutional ruling of Plessey v. Ferguson. The court cases determined the unfair treatments in public education as colored students were denied, separated, and discriminated in universities. In sum, Ladino had successfully proven the historical factors relating to events prior to the changes that have led to an end of segregation to a foundation of true equality in the United …show more content…
citizens. Although the Executive Order 9808 held equality, it did not prevent the states from promoting segregation and discrimination. For instance, in Sipuel v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents, Marshall, Sipuel’s civil rights attorney, argued that the denial of Sipuel’s admission because of her race and color was considered to be illegal. In addition, Marshall claimed that the words “separate” and “equal” were not equivalent, and could not be used together at the same time (Ladino, 13). Although the court ruled that the university’s rejection of Sipuel was unconstitutional in terms of the Fourteenth Amendment, the court claimed that desegregation was not the problem that interrupted Sipuel’s admission. In addition, in Sweatt v. Painter, Sweatt was rejected to attend the Texas law school in Austin, primarily for the same reasons as Sipuel. While the court acknowledged Sweatt as an honorable student, it allowed universities’ to build institutions to separate students based on their race and color. As a result, Marshall decided to take action by taking the court cases to the Supreme Court. In brief, African Americans were dedicated to accomplish true equality, while the court continued to find separation

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