Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Treatment Of Asthma

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A Case Analysis of the Pathophysiology and Pharmacologic Treatment of Asthma
Definition of Disease Asthma is a “chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchial mucosa that causes hyperresponsiveness and constrictions of the airways” (Huether & McCance 2014). The onset of asthma has the ability to be induced by a variety of forms: non-allergic (stress, anxiety, or weather induced ), allergic (extrinsic), reaction to medications, and strenuous cardiovascular activities (Lilley, Collins, & Snyder, 2014). Due to the lack of ability to breathe, the standard symptoms associated with asthma are tightness in the chest, shortness of breath, wheezing, and increased coughing especially at night (Marieb & Hoehn 2013). Asthma attacks can be categorized
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Exposure to an allergen can cascade an IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reaction (Heuther & McCance 2012). Any substance that elicts an allergic reaction is known as an allergen (Lilly, Collins, & Snyder, 2014). A reaction may be immediate, within minutes, or delayed, after a few hours. When an individual encounters an initial exposure, antibodies distinguish the allergen as an antigen, a foreign matter, and initiates IgE to bind to mast cells. This phenomenon is known as sensitization. In the event that a sensitized individual encounters subsequent contact to the same antigen, mast cells degranulate, releasing its inflammatory …show more content…
S, a 30 year old African American female suffers from asthma. She was recently diagnosed with this disease at the age of 28. In one day, she finds herself making two trips to the hospital. During her first visit to the emergency department she presents symptoms of an acute asthma attack. The first order of business is to open the patients’ airway. Therefore, the physician prescribes her nebulized albuterol, without a spacer. Upon administration of the medication her symptoms are relieved in a timely manner. However, she has returned to the hospital only six hours later and her asthmatic symptoms have worsened. She is experience anxiety due to severe wheezing and dyspnea. The patient states she is allergic to cigarette smoke, which could be the irritant that is prompting Mrs. S’s asthma

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