Newton And Darwin's Method Of Overcoming Limitations Of Sense Experience

789 Words 4 Pages
Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin’s findings had vital contribution to the development of modern science. Some of their discoveries are still applicable in the contemporary world. Newton did experiments to prove significant laws and principles of force and motion in physical science, while Darwin suggested a lot of processes that indicate the diversity of life of different species. Limitations of sense experience exist when both Newton and Darwin work on their findings, as sense experience involves subjective perspectives of individuals. However, both of them managed to overcome these limitations, so increasing the objectivity of these findings. In this essay, Newton and Darwin’s methods of overcoming limitations of sense experience will be discussed, …show more content…
In Newton’s experiments, critical observation was involved, they were proved mathematically and became evidences. Mathematical calculations can explain concepts objectively, which means Newton’s findings are rather logical as he avoided stating opinionated statements without examples. These calculations can also be applied to predict events in the future. In 1684, Halley asked Newton about the force of attraction towards the sun, Newton answer that he used calculations to prove the curve being in an ellipsis shape (Cohen 52). Although he didn’t manage to find his calculated solution, he used another new method to prove it and had the same answer (Cohen 52). This demonstrates the accuracy and validity of mathematics, even though it is impossible for Newton to witness, observe or sense the forces in the solar system, he managed to discover the elliptical orbit trend. Moreover, Newton used his sense experience when he saw an apple falling down from a tree, meaning the apple has a downward acceleration. He concluded that this downward motion of an object is associated to the mass of (“Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.”), thus created a mathematical equation for his second law. Mathematical formulas help increasing the objectivity of his idea on the principle as it hides the subjectivity of sense perceptions. So, creating a shared knowledge which …show more content…
By experimentation, he found out that clover relies on bees for their fertility and bees can rely on the clover flowers for nutrition (Darwin 83). He did not just observe the happenings on these two-different species, but attempting to discover the relationship between them. Darwin deduced that there is a mutualistic relationship between them, as both clover and bees help and benefit each other in the nature in terms of growth and developmental aspects. Apart from overcoming sense experience by investigations, critical observation also helps. Darwin saw many unperceived species during his voyage and noticed that animals can look distinctive in different geographical locations. For example, giant tortoises with saddle-shaped shells and dome-shaped shells were discovered in two respective islands (Wilkin). Apart from observing these peculiar differences, he started to try discover the reason. He came up with various factors, like geographical environment, adaptation of species, and difference in food intake etc. Darwin deduced that they came from the same ancestor, but the aggregation of negligible modifications (Darwin 83) of species caused them to be significantly changed into different forms. This further proves that Darwin uses a philosophical approach to explain the behavioral pattern of species based on his sensory

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