Molarity Lab Report

The hypothesis was supported as the rate of reaction did increase as the concentration and the temperature increased. The concentration, or molarity, of the reactants increased in relation to time in the form M=1.1541e0.0016t. This is an accurate relationship as the volume remains the same as the number of molecules increase, thus the rate would increase exponentially as the molecules collide at a constant growth rate. This is also a reliable model as the R² value is 0.9697. The hypothesis that the reaction would be first order was also supported, which can be seen in graph 2 of the results, where the natural log of the molarity was plotted against time and the trendline was linear, with the equation of ln(M) = 0.0016t + 0.1434. This is because …show more content…
However two concentration values were necessary to model the Arrhenius from results and hence secondary data was used to aid the modelling of the relationship. The tabulated value of the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 102kJ/mol and 2.1 x 〖10〗^16 respectively according to “Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences” By Raymond Chan (Chang, 2005). Hence the pre-exponential factor was used in conjunction with the data found to find a value for the activation energy, and then the tabulated value and the resulting E_a value found were compared. The value found was 99.333kJ/mol, and were therefore only 2.61% off the tabulated data (calculations shown in the results). The average rate constant for a given temperature was found by plotting the temperature in Kelvins and the tabulated A value along with the E_a value found above, and the graph was plotted to the form of the Arrhenius equation (see graph 4 of results). The results were exactly linear with an R² value of one. This exact value occurred because only one data point from results of this investigation was used to find the model and hence all the other data points on the graph are the predicted ln(k) values according to the equation. These points are still considered accurate however, as the activation energy found was 97.39% of the tabulated …show more content…
The hydrolysis of t-BuCl, the reaction of an organic compound with water, can be shown by the chemical equation (CH_3 )_3 CCl+H_2 O→(CH_3 )_3 COH+HCl, where tert-Butyl chloride reacts with water to form 2-chloro-2-methylpropanol and hydrochloric acid (Shakhashiri, 2016). This reaction is called a nucleophilic substitution reaction where two molecules are nucleophilic or “nuclei-loving” and swap positions, each attaching itself to another molecule which is positively or partially positively charged (Wikipedia, 2016; qataracademy, 2016). The reaction rate of this reaction depends on the temperature that the reaction takes place at and the concentration of tert-Butyl chloride, both of which influence the molecules collisions during the rate-determining

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