Humanism In Frantz Fanon's The Wretched Of The Earth

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In the second and third chapter of The Wretched of the Earth, Frantz Fanon discusses the stakes of the struggle for independence. Continuing where he stopped in the preceding chapter “On Violence,” he elaborates on the dangers and possible pitfalls during and after the revolutionary struggle would prevent the former colonies to emerge as truly independent nations. At the center of Fanon’s assessment lays the development of a humanism that supersedes the nationalism that unifies in the revolutionary phase of liberation. In the second chapter, he focuses primarily on the role of national parties and on the long-term strategies to add a political and social dimension to the collective consciousness to prevent economic and political frictions …show more content…
In marked contrast to Marx, Fanon gives the lumpenproletariat a central role in the revolutionary struggle in underdeveloped countries, suggesting that they are the only segment of the society that would not collaborate with the colonizers. However, he later qualifies this statement and suggests that if not soon fully incorporated in the national struggle, they might end up as mercenaries (136-7). Just like the peasants, the lumpenproletariat shares Fanon’s belief that violence is a prerequisite for their own and their ancestors’ rehabilitation (130). During the revolution, the local spirit of unity progressively evolves into an all-inclusive national one, an atmosphere of purification that cleanses the entire nation. The collective ecstasy of this moment leads people to overcome long-lasting rivalries. An outpouring of kindness and generosity that slowly spills from the local to the national level follows the process of forgiveness (134-5). In order to maintain this unity in the post-revolutionary phase, Fanon demands that the people receive a historic education on self-rule and the importance of long-term interests over the fulfillment of short-term gratifications (136). In the third chapter, Fanon further elaborates on the

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