How Did Early Civilizations Produce?

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Key Concept 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
1. Civilizations are large societies with cities and powerful states. Defining characteristics of civilizations include: producing agricultural surpluses, specialization of labor, containing cities, complex institutions (political bureaucracies, armies, religious hierarchies), having clearly stratified social hierarchies, and organized long-distance trade.
2. As civilizations grew, and populations increased, competition for surplus resources (food), led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping.
3. As civilizations expanded,
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Rulers developed legal codes to unify their populations such as the Code of Hammurabi. Legal codes also supported social hierarchies as punishments differed based on who committed the crime.
What architectural forms did early civilizations produce?
10. Early civilizations developed monumental architecture including: Ziggurats (Mesopotamia), pyramids (Egypt), temples (Mesoamerica), defensive walls, streets, roads, sewage systems, and water systems.
11. The development of elites encouraged the development of art in civilizations. Political and religious elites promoted arts and artisanship.
12. Ancient forms of writing include: cuneiform (Mesopotamia), hieroglyphics (Egypt), pictographs, alphabets, and quipu. They helped civilizations to record history/ record keeping.
13. Literature represented a high status and education, as it wasn't readily available to everyone, only to the elites/ the wealthy. Literature also took on religious elements, for example the Epic of Gilgamesh (Mesopotamia) portrayed their religious beliefs in a text (the flooding of the river was a result of the angry gods). This showed how society viewed the gods and practices religion.
14. The following pre-600 BCE religions influenced later eras: Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Vedic
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Buddhism originated in the Himalayas, India, from there it spread along trade routes in particular the silk road. Merchants and missionaries from India spread Buddhist beliefs along their travels. All before 600 CE Buddhism reached China, Japan, Korea, and South East Asia.
8. Confucianism began in the warring States period and was founded by Confucius. Confucianism taught filial piety and respect for elders/ancestors. Confucianism was also used by the Chinese to create the civil service exams, which was the first bureaucracy based on merit rather than by social status.
9. Daoism was founded by Laozi. Daoism taught harmony, with no concept of a God. People who practiced Daoism typically rejected government involvement.
10. Christianity started from Judaism, Jesus Christ was the founder. Christianity was monotheistic and taught that Jesus was the son of God, the 10 commandments, and the idea of an afterlife (heaven and hell).
11. Christianity spread through missionaries. It spread from the Mediterranean to different parts of Afro-Eurasia by 600 CE.
12. Greco-Roman philosophy emphasised logic, attempted to find rational explanations for the workings of the world (scientific

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