Factors And Complications Of Bacterial Peptidoglygen To Plants

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Nutrients deficiency and higher competition for nutrients in the soil is a major problem in most ecosystems. In order to overcome this deficiency of nutrients, plants have developed symbiotic association with beneficial microbes and endophytes (Clark and Zeto 2000). Endophytic fungi have been reported to transfer soil limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus (Govindarajulu et al. 2005; Guether et al. 2009; Behie and Bidochka 2014) to their host plant whereas fungi received plant-derived carbohydrates (Bonfante and Genre 2010). Metarhizium and Beauveria having dual life cycle suggested that insect pathogenesis translocated insect-derived nitrogen to plants (Behie and Bidochka 2014). In this way, plants colonized with fungal entomopathogens …show more content…
2003). Bacterial peptidoglycan, a polymer of β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues, is cleaved by plant chitinases that have additional lysozyme or lysozyme-like activity (Kasprzewska 2003). Plant cell wall glycoproteins containing N-acetylglucosamine, are considered to be the endogenous substrate for plant chitinases (Dyachok et al. 2002). In fungi, insects and crustaceans that contain chitin as a cell wall component, the major role of chitinases appears to be in modification of chitin. Chitinases are also considered to have a role in defense or in enhancing competitiveness in higher plants and animals that do not contain chitin. Bacterial chitinases are mainly involved in degrading chitin to provide carbon and nitrogen nutrition to the cells (Patil et al. 2000). In plants, chitinases have been implicated both in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as in growth and development (Sharma et al. 2011). Chitinases represent a subgroup of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins that were initially discovered as proteins that are induced in host cells in response to pathogenesis (Van Loon 1985). Subsequently, it became apparent that PR …show more content…
2011). In Pakistan, maize was cultivated on an area of about 1.1 million hectares with a production of 4.5 million tons during 2013-14. It is a matter of grave concern that maize average yield during 2013-14 was just over four tons per hectare which is much less as compared to other countries like USA. A score of seed, soil, agronomic and climate related factors result in a significant reduction in maize grain yield on per hectare basis. But poor plant nutrition is the leading yield limiting factor which reduces grain yield and ultimately result in underutilization of precious resources (Badu-Apraku and Lum 2010). In irrigated areas, currently available maize varieties have the potential to give a fairly high yield if proper fertilization is ensured but drought stress is the limiting factor in this regard. Globally, in terms of energy source in human nutrition, Z. mays L. being the most important cereal crop (ranked 3rd after rice and wheat) is also facing water scarcity (Sandhya et al. 2010). With a high photosynthetic activity, maize as a C4 crop is considered as a source of high grain and increased biomass. The knowledge about the responses of plant at nutritional, physiological and genomic level is

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