Exterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery

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In today’s society, injuries occur all around us: from a small paper cut, a tear of a ligament, or a bone breaking in the body. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four central ligaments that stabilize the knee (Ref). This ligament prevents the tibia from sliding from the front of the femur and runs diagonally in the middle of the knee (ref). It is estimated that 70 percent of these tears occur through non-contact, while the other 30 percent occur from direct contact, whether it be from an outside object or player in sports (ref). This injury may occur when an individual is decelerating immediately while sidestepping, which may cause an uncomfortable landing on the knee joint (ref). Injured ACLs can be replaced by a substitute …show more content…
With chronic instability, such as leaving the ACL torn, up to 90 percent of patients will have meniscus damage when reassessed 10 or more years after initial injury. In participants who have a 10-year-old deficiency, the prevalence of articular lesions increases by up to 70 percent. ACL tears are best reconstructed from a substitute graft made out of tendon (ref). The grafts commonly used to replace the ACL include the patella tendon auto-graft originating from the participant, recommended for high-demand athletes, which is considered the “gold standard” for reconstruction (ref). Another auto graft method used with reconstruction is the Hamstring tendon, which is a faster recovery with a smaller incision (ref). If a patient’s ACL reconstruction surgery has already failed, a surgeon may recommend a quadriceps tendon auto graft (ref) or allografts, which is a tendon taken from a cadaver and are becoming increasingly popular due to their success of ACL reconstruction (ref). Physical therapy is a crucial part of ACL surgery, as much of the success of the reconstruction is based on beginning exercise immediately after surgery. Patients treated with surgical reconstruction have long-term success rates of 82-95 percent. The goal of the reconstruction surgery is to prevent instability and restore the function of the torn ligament creating a

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