Apartheid And Two-Tiered Pluralism

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Apartheid, economic/political disempowerment and two-tiered pluralism are three minority exclusion models that shaped the political opportunities and barriers for minorities in the United States. Apartheid was a system of government in South Africa that separated whites and non-whites. It was harsh on nonwhites politically and economically. It was enforced using violence and was very expensive to be maintained. The Same system was adopted by the US in South. Economic and political disempowerment is depriving a racial/ethnic group of its rightful and legal rights that they once had achieved for themselves. Two-Tiered Pluralism is structural limits on what each racial/ethnic group can attain. This creates a “wealth gap” between each group based …show more content…
It started at the end of US Civil War/beginning of WWII (Lecture 7). Native Americans Cultural practices were outlawed, their lands were taken away without trading something equally, treaties were broken by the US. Native populations didn’t have the ability to oppose any of this. They forced to live in bad economic environments (Shaw et. al. 2015: 49). In General Allotment Act (1887) allowed the US President to divide Native lands to individual tribesmen (Shaw et. al. 2015: 53). Native lands decreased from 138 million acres to 90 million acres during 1887-1934, these lands were less productive or appealing lands (Lecture 7). The began the “Civilizing” process of Indians. Western Education, religion, attire/dressing was forced on them. American cultures were taught in boarding schools to bright Native American students (Lecture 7). Missionaries were sent to train Native populations about Christianity. Gradually it led to the loss of Native American Cultural Identity. However, things changed for them after the 1950s. In Lecture 7 on Self-determination on the reservation; Native Americans demanded that the national government should recognize Indian sovereignty as they will be controlling their own lands. This was pointing towards growing self-government. The biggest achievement for them was the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, though that was not a part of their priority demands at that time (Shaw et. al. …show more content…
This was due to the divide between state and national citizenship. States were governed by state power which was mainly in hands of whites who didn’t want to give power to blacks. Later there was a crisis that undermined black empowerment, but the New Deal and the civil rights movement ensured that 14th amendment was implemented (Lecture 9). The US was tired of civil war, so it retreated troops. Congress was equally racist in its interpretation of black empowerment as it excluded half of African American officials that were allowed and elected to Congress making excuses like they were elected under suspicious circumstances. During the years 1873-1896 the southern states try to come up with strategies for the disenfranchisement of black power, Ku Klux Klan appears in this era. Grandfather clause was that you were only eligible to vote if your grandfather was too, came into effect (Shaw et. al. 2015: 126). Overall blacks had got more out of this model. Black voter registration grew from 0 to 703,000, five Southern states had majority black voters, blacks were gaining position in office and thus became powerful elites in the community. Their support from poor white families developed too. Though the negative outcome was that the ideology of racism gradually grew (Lecture

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