Characteristics Of Goldfish By Mirjany Fishes

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Fish’s consist of a diverse amount of species each known for their characteristics that set them apart from the rest. The characteristics that make the general understanding of a fish are, vertebrate, aquatic, Gills rather than lungs, paired limbs(fins) for locomotion, and are covered with scales. When we see fishes in aquariums we have an irresistible urge to tap the glass, and in doing so, a lot of the fishes get startled and move away performing a sequence of steps called an c-start used as an escape mechanism, the name was give due to their characteristic shape. The intricacies of the c-start are important to figure out why such an escape reflex comes to action; the escape reflex is studied on the Goldfish (carassius auratis) by Mirjany …show more content…
The lateral line consists of neuromasts that are specialized in the detection of the changes in the water, thus can identify sound fields, the neuromasts are innervated by the anterior lateral line nerve (aLLn) and posterior lateral line nerve(pLLn), which are found in the head and trunk of the fish respectively. Mauthner cells (m-cells) are important in the startle response which help the fish avoid the cause of the stimulus. M-cells are a pair of reticulospinal neurons that are found in the hindbrain of fishes, the m-cells main input are hair cells, but the lateral line plays a key role in its function. The aLLn has been found to have faster conduction times compared to the pLLn because it innervates the hindbrain. In an article published by (Mirjany et al., 2011), the transection of the pLLn did not affect the escape response and its directionality. The primary of focus of the article studied for this paper is on the role of an input by the aLLn to the …show more content…
The posterior spinal cord was viewed and the m-cells were stimulated antidromically (axon terminals to soma). Intramuscular Injection of d-tubocurarine was administered to immobilize the fish at (1 Mg/g of body mass. M-cells response to sound was recorded from the soma 50µm lateral to axon cap and distally along the lateral dendrite >400µm from cap, using 4-7 MΩ microelectrodes that are filled with 5 Mol/L of potassium acetate. The researchers studied the role of NMDA and AMPA by antagonists that were in the saline fluid which was fused into the fish’s brain. The NMDA receptors were blocked by APV and AMPA was blocked by CNQX. Sound was transmitted by standard computer speakers that were placed above and to the right of the fish, 200 Hz Sinusoidal waves were produced by a digital waveform generator, the sound generated pressure waves that were sent via

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