Cardiovascular Disease : The Leading Cause Of Death Globally Essay
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. Different types of cardiac operations are performed every day in hospitals varying in complexity to treat several lesions such as coronary artery bypass graft, heart valve replacement and total heart replacement. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a crucial technique employed in the majority of these operations (Punjabi and Taylor 2013). It takes over the function of the heart and lungs during the surgery to maintain the adequate circulation of oxygen and nutrients over the procedure.
1.1.1 Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
CABG is a common procedure that used CPB to treat the blockage of the coronary arteries. It diverts blood around an obstructed artery in order to improve or restore blood flow and oxygen to the heart. The left and right coronary arteries play a crucial role in the controlling of the supplied amount of oxygen to the the body. If these arteries are blocked or narrowed, (risk factors include obesity, high cholesterol and smoking) blood flow is occluded and the patient may suffer from atherosclerosis. Patients with atherosclerosis after experience severe angina and are at risk of myocardial infraction. Hence, the surgical intervention in this situation involves grafting a vessel in the taking of a new vessel from the arm, chest or leg and attaching to the coronary artery below the blockage area.
1.2 Cardiopulmonary bypass history (CPB)