Essay on Buiness

2644 Words Apr 6th, 2010 11 Pages
UNIVERSITY FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES,GHANA CENTER FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION AND INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH (CCEIR), NAVRONGO
A PROPOSAL BY MUMUNI ELIASU For A MASTER OF ART DEGREE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND LIVELIHOOD CHANGE INTRODUCTION 1.2 Background Since the beginning of civilization of mankind, man found the use of minerals as indispensable material in sustaining life with the “lion cave” being the oldest known mine from Swaziland which proved to be about 43,000 years old. Hungary and the Ancient Egypt also mined flint and malachite respectively for weaponry tools and ornaments. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining) Mining generally is the extraction of valuable mineral deposits or other geological
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Ventilation is normally provided in underground mining, but in cases of uranium, care must be taken to avoid or minimized radiation exposure and dust inhalation. Entry into underground mines is by vertical shafts, or by a sloping tunnel, called a 'decline'. Some very large underground mines have both. {draw:frame} Fig. 1. A mine worker with Bauxite stone (Source: Mineral Commission, Ghana) {draw:frame} Fig. 2. Deep Pit Mine in Honduras. {draw:frame} Fig.3 Goldfields Mine (Open Deep Pit), Tarkwa There have been significant contributions of mining to various economies in the world especially in countries where these deposits are found. These countries have had good foreign exchange, increase in revenues from mining companies, employment creation and social services as part of their social and corporate responsibilities. Mining started over centuries now since the colonial days. Small-scale mining also known as “galamsey’ was legalized by the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) law 218, 1989, in both small and commercial forms which are bringing some economic benefits in the form of taxes and royalties to the country. The nation drives bulk of its external revenue from gold mining which accounts for over 90% of the country’s mineral export. Apart from gold, Ghana produces significant quantities of diamonds and bauxite and counted amongst the top five countries producing manganese ore. As of

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