CHAPTER 6 MASTER BUDGET AND RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING 6-1 a. b. c. d. The budgeting cycle includes the following elements: Planning the performance of the company as a whole as well as planning the performance of its subunits. Management agrees on what is expected. Providing a frame of reference, a set of specific expectations against which actual results can be compared. Investigating variations from plans. If necessary, corrective action follows investigation. Planning again, in light of feedback and changed conditions.
The master budget expresses management’s operating and financial plans for a specified 6-2 period (usually a fiscal year) and includes a set of budgeted financial statements. It is the initial plan of what the company
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6-6 In many organizations, budgets impel managers to plan. Without budgets, managers drift from crisis to crisis. Research also shows that budgets can motivate managers to meet targets and improve their performance. Thus, many top managers believe that budgets meet the cost-benefit test. 6-7 A rolling budget, also called a continuous budget, is a budget or plan that is always available for a specified future period, by continually adding a period (month, quarter, or year) to the period that just ended. A four-quarter rolling budget for 2011 is superseded by a four-quarter rolling budget for April 2011 to March 2012, and so on.
The steps in preparing an operating budget are as follows: 1. Prepare the revenues budget 2. Prepare the production budget (in units) 3. Prepare the direct material usage budget and direct material purchases budget 4. Prepare the direct manufacturing labor budget 5. Prepare the manufacturing overhead budget 6. Prepare the ending inventories budget 7. Prepare the cost of goods sold budget 8. Prepare the nonmanufacturing costs budget 9. Prepare the budgeted income statement
6-9 The sales forecast is typically the cornerstone for budgeting, because production (and, hence, costs) and inventory levels generally depend on the forecasted level of sales. 6-10 Sensitivity analysis adds an extra dimension to budgeting. It enables managers to examine how budgeted amounts change with changes in the