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60 Cards in this Set

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International relations
the relationships among the world’s governments
-closely connected with international organizations, multinational corps, w/ social structures (econ, culture, domestic politic
-globalization
central trend in IR today
-Better communication and transportation capabilities constantly expand people’s contact w/ products, people, and ideas i.e. globalization internationalizes
KEY FOCUS: how can a group (2 nations) serves its collective interests when doing so requires members to forgo own individual interests?
-Collective goods problem
problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it
-Easier to provide in small groups than large—defection (free riding) harder to conceal
*Particularly problem in IR because each nation is sovereign, w/ no central authority (world govt.) to enforce on individual nations the necessary measures to provide for the common good
**Solution: dominance, reciprocity, identity
Dominance
establishes a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below, social conflicts like who gets resources resolved in favor o higher-ranking actor
-Acts of submission and dominance reinforce an ever-present status hierarchy
*top actor may be most adept at forming and maintaining alliances among group’s more capable members
Hegemon
superpower sometimes stands atop great powers of dominant nation
Ex. UN Security Council- world’s 5 strongest military powers hold veto
-Forces members of a group to contribute to common good & minimizes open conflict w/in groups
-ISSUE: constant oppression of and resentment by lower ranking members in hierarchy
-RESULTS: provides relative peace and stability for decades but can break down into terribly costly wars among great powers
Reciprocity
rewards behavior that contributes to the group and punishes behavior that pursues self-interest at expense of group
-Enforced W/O central authority
-ISSUE: can lead to downward spiral as each side punishes what believes to be negative acts by other—people overestimate own good intentions and underestimate value of action of opponents
*Forms basis of most norms and institutions in international system (World Trade Organization
+:open country opens markets to another’s goods, other opens markets in return
-:one country expels certain number of diplomats from another country for spying, other country always responds w/in days by expelling same number of diplomats from first country
Identity
: identities of participants as members of community
-NO self-interest, BUT COMMUNITY
-Roles in overcoming difficult collective goods problems, including who contributes to development assistance, world health, UN peacekeeping missions
-Increased strength lately b/c fem. Organizations, churches, multi nat. corps, jihadists
-International politics
decisions of governments about foreign actors, especially other govts.—interdisciplinary field w/ econ, history, and sociology
-Issue areas:
particular activities w/in one of spheres make them up, on which scholars and foreign policy makers focus attention (global trade, env. conflicts like Arab-Israeli conflict
-International security
subfield focuses on war and peace—mvmnt armies and diplomats, crafting of treaties and alliances, development and deployment of military capabilities
-International political economy (IPE
second main subfield IR-concerns trade and financial relations among nations and focuses on how nations cooperated politically to create and maintain institutions that regulate flow of international economic and financial transactions
-New important issues international env. Management and global telecommunications
State
territorial entity controlled by a govt. and inhabited by pop-state govt. exercises sovereignty over territory-no higher authority
-pop forms a civil society- developed institutions to participate in political or social life=nation
-govt.= democracy where govt controlled by members of pop rather than imposed on them
-comprised of capital city, head of state-includes individual leader and bureaucratic organizations (foreign ministries
international system:
set of relationships among the world’s states, structures according to certain rules and patterns of interaction=who member, rights responsibility
*existed less than 500 years
-before divided into city-states, empires, feudal fiefs
nation states:
most large states today
-major source conflict and war is mismatch between perceives nations and actual state borders
-UN 192 members 2007
-15 states w pop 70 million+ contain 2/3 world’s pop
gross domestic product:
state’s size of total annual economic activity
-great powers- states w/ great military and economic strength
-superpowers: those w/ truly global influence (US alone
-intergovernmental organizations (IGOs
organizations whose members are national governments (Org. of petroleum exporting countries OPEC, WTO, NATO, AU)
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
private organizations known as legit actors among states
mulitnational corporations (MNCs):
companies that span multiple countries-control greater resources and operate internationally w/ greater efficiency that small states and provide poor states w/ foreign investment and tax revenues-look for protection from states
substate actors
nonstate actors that exist w/in one country but either influence that country’s foreign policy or operate internationally or both
-*states being pushed aside by globalization
individual levels:
perceptions, choices, and actions of individual human beings
-war attributed to Saddam Hussein or Bush’s desire to remove him
domestic (state of societal
concerns aggregations of individuals w/in states that influence state action in international arena—interest groups, political organizations, government agencies
-rise of neoconservative faction convinced Bush admin and Americans Saddam was threat
interstate (international systemic
concerns the influence of international system upon outcomes—interactions of states themselves w/p regard to internal makeup or particular individual who lead them
-pays attention to states’ relative power positions in international system and interactions MOST IMPORTANT LEVEL OF ANALYSIS
global
explains international outcomes in terms of global trends and forces that transcend interactions and states themselves
-ex. evolution of human technology, lingering effect of historical European imperialism in Latin America, Asia, and Africa
-global fear of terrorism
North-South gap:
between rich industrialized countries of N and poor countries of S most important geographical element at global level of analysis
-North: N American, W Europe, Japan South: L America, Africa, Middle E, Asia
-east Asia: China, Japan, Korea -SE Asia: Burma to Indonesia and Philippines -Pacific Rim- E and SE Asia, Siberia, Pacific coast N America and Latin America
League of Nations:
Woodrow Wilson
-1937 Japan invaded rest of China and began occupation
-Munich Agreement 1939:
ex Germany occupy part of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland)-only encouraged Hitler’s further conquests
-1939 Germany invaded Poland
-Hitler signed nonaggression pact w/ Stalin then turned back against him and invaded Soviet Union
-US joined 1942- firebombing in Dresden in 1945 caused 100,000 civilian deaths
-1944 June 6 D-Day British American forces pushed into Germany from W while Soviets pushed from east—Germany surrendered
-Japan fought war over control in SE Asia w/ US and allies—US cut of Japan’s oil exports—lead to Pearl Harbor
-The Marshall Plan
Us financial aid to rebuild European economies
containment
1940s US sought to halt expansion of Soviet influence globally on military, political, ideological, and economic
The Chinese Communist Revolution 1949
led to Sino(Chinese)-Soviet alliance
-china opposed peaceful coexistence w/ the US
summit meeting:
between superpower leaders in Geneva
-reconstituted Austria, which was split into four pieces like Germany
Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962
when the Soviet Union installed medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba
GOALS: reduce USSR’s strategic nuclear inferiority, to counter the deployment of U.S. missiles on Soviet borders in Turkey, and to deter another U.S. invasion of Cuba
Limited Test Ban Treaty:
1963 prohibited atmospheric nuclear tests, and began to cooperate in cultural exchanges, space exploration, aviation, etc.
proxy wars
2 superpowers jockeyed for position in global south where supplied and advised opposing factions in civil wars
-ex. US back Ethiopian government and Soviets backed Somalia in 70s, but switched when Ethiopian govt. sought out soviet help
Realism
school of thought explains international relations in terms of power
-Sun Tzu strategist who can up w/ idea
-theoretical foundationf or Cold War policies of containment
-Hans Morgentau- internatinal politics governed by objective, universal laws based on national interests
-*choices of states operating as autonomous actors rationally pursuoing their own interests I nan international systen of sovereign states without central authority
-realpoitik/power politics
: the exercise of power by states toward each other
Idealism
emphasizes international law, moralitym and international organizations rather than power alone, as key influences on international events-human nature basically good, international system as community states w/ potential to work together to overcome mutual problems
-active between WWI and WWII—Woodrow Wilson
power
the ability to get another actor to do whatit would not otherwise have done
capability
specific characteristics or possessions of states—sizes, levels of income, and
armed forces, circular in logic
-give states the potential to influence others only to extent that political leaders can mobilize and deploy them effectively and strategically
power of ideas
ability to maximize the influence of capabilities through psychological process (domestic mobilization of capabilities through religion, ideology, nationalism)
soft power
forming rules of behvior to change others to see their own national interests-US influences other power accept free markets and free trade
Relative power
the ratio of power that 2 states can bring to bear against eachother
-state power=natural resources, industrial capacity, moral legitimacy, military preparedness, popular support for govt.
-long term elements actor draw on=political culture, patriotism, education of pop, strength of scientific and technological base
geopolitics
use of geography as an element of power
-use location to incrase power to enhance military capabilities by securing allies and bases close to rival power or along strategic trade routes
anarchy
realists believe international system lack central govt. that can enforce rules
-states must rely on self-help which they supplement w/ allies constraining power of international norms
-states should pay attention to capalibities of other states
norms
shared expectations about what behavior is considered proper
sovereignty
most important norm- govt. Has right to do whatever it wants in own territory
security dilemma
a situation in which states’ actions taken to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states
balance of power:
the general concept of one or more states’ power being used to balance that of another state or group of states
-process by which counterbalancing coalitions have repeatedly formed in history to prevent one state from conquering an entire region
-building up one’s own capabilities against a rival is a form of power balancing, but forming an alliance against a threatening state is often quicker, cheaper, and more effectively
the great powers
half-dozen most powerful states-states that can be defeated militarily only be another great power-largest economies—large pops, plentiful natural resources, advanced technology, educated labor forces
-US, China, Russia, Japan, Germany, France, and Britain
middle powers
rank somewhat below great powers in terms of influence on world affairs. Some large but not hightly industrialized; others have specialized capabilities but are small
neorealism/ structural realism:
1990s adaptation of realism-explains patterns of international eventsin terms of system structure-the international distributin of power-rather than the internal makeup of individual states
polarity
the number of independent power centers in the system
mulitpolar system
: has five or 6 centers of power which are not grouped into alliances. Each state participated independently and on relatively equal terms
-bipolar system
has two predominant states or two great rival alliance blocs-US-Soviet standoff
-tripolar systems
three great centers of power, two-against-one alliance to form
-strategic triangle of US, Soviet Union, China 60s and 70s
unipolar system/hegemony
: single center of power around which others revolve
-power transition theory: the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy when a rising power is surpassing the most powerful state
-when rising power’s status diverges from its actual power, the rising power may suffer from relative deprivation
-in power transition theory peace among great powers results when one state is firmly in the top position and the positions of others in the hierarchy are clearly defnied and correspond w/ their actual underlying power
hegemony
the holding by one state of a preponderance of power in the international system, so that it can singly-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted
-Britain in the 19th and US after WWII
hegemonic stability theory
hegemony provides some order similar to a central govt. in the international system: reducing anarchy, deterring aggression, promoting free trade, and providing a hard currency that can be used as a world standard
-can maintain global free trade and promote world economic growth
-have inherent interests in promotion of integrated world markets, doesn’t fear competition from industries in other states, fears only superiour goods wo;; be excluded from competing in other states, use power to achieve free trade and political stability that supports free trade
-Helms-Burton Act
provides for sanctions against countries that do business in Cuba
Iran-Libya Sanctions Act
imposes sanctions on countries that invest in Iran or Libya
Treaty of Westphalia
1648- established modern international system w/ principles of independent sovereign states that continue to shape international system today
-ability of one state to balance power of another state so that it couldn’t gobble up smaller units and create a universal empire
-sovereignty and territorial integrity of states as equal and independent members of international system