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340 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
leader of the Franks
defeated the Moslems or Muslims at the Battle of the Tours
Charles Martel
dynasty of Frankish Kings founded by Charles Martel
Carolingian dynasty
King of the Lombards
a tax on income for the Church
monk who set up a school for Charlemagne and rule of learning under him
decorating the 1st letter and margins using plants as ink
1) a special system with class distinctions
peice of land given by a lord
ceremony of investure
the confirming of a feudal contract for vassals
water around the castle to kkep out intruders
tower of safety
donjon or keep
gate which soliders entered and was the last to fall
entrance gate
values and virtues of being a warrior that expected them to be brave, generous, and loyal
someone who goes around and sings about lova and women
a village or villages and the surronding lands
founded the Celts of Ireland
St. Patrick
apostle of Germany
St. Boniface
monastary at Mounte Cassino
St. Benedict
wrote the stations of the cross and the nativity shape
St. Francis of Assisi
disobiedience of the church laws
way of life chosen by monks that had a common life with discipline
fair where goods were exchanged for one and other
trade fair
how did religious orders improve life during the middle ages?
1)experiments in agriculture 2)have herbal gardens and medical knowledge 3) care for the sick and orphans 4) welcome place for travelers
The six points of a gothic church (memorize!)
pointed arches
flying butresses
ribbed vault
great height
thinner walls
large glass windows
wrote Divine Comedy
wrote Cantebury Tales
wrote Summa Theologica
St. Thomas Anquinas
famous medieval universities
Oxford, Cambridge, Trinity College
use of reason to support catholic beliefs
founder of experimental science
Roger Bacon
What were the crusades and what were their purpose?
a war to gain back the Holy Land
money lent for intrest
the muslim leader who offers to negotiate with Christians
the five results of the crusade
Power and prestige of Church increases
science and technology changes &quickens
increases trade and town growth
broaden culture outlook
Encourages learning
William the Conqueror
William of Duke who takes England in the Battle of Hastings . He establishes strong central government and uses the Doomsday book to survey for taxes
Henry I
1) paid officials 2) loyalty to the king
3) increased Royal income 4) centralized treasury
Henry II
1) expanded the power of the courts 2) created circuit courts 3) common law
4) trial by jury
King John
agrees to pay papal fief
Thomas a'Becket
archbishop of Canterbury who disputes with Henry II over taxes
Ferninand and Isabella
brought unity to Spain but did not support any other religion than Christianity
John Wycliffe
translated the bible from to english and said that sacraments are not necessary
Joan of Arc
claimed to hear voices that helped her save France
Doomsday Book
a census "survey" to decide on taxes owed
Salisbury oath
alleigance to the king
common law
descisions based on previous cases
Magna Carta
1) limits the king's powers-- written guarentee of traditional rights
2) taxes couldn't be levied without approval
What is the English Gov?
Model Parliament

House of Lords House of Commons
the sale of Church offices
the 2 largest Moslem cities in Spain
Cordova and Granada
the expelling of Muslims from Spain
making Spain a Catholic nation again
What was the Babalonian captivity of the pope?
King Philip captures the Pope because he won't let him tax the clergy
What is the Great Schism?
when the chudch had 2 (3) popes at the same time due to political differences and the death of the Pope
What is another name for the Thirty Yars War?
The WAr of Roses
What does the word Renaissance mean?
the rebirth of learning
What is a humanist?
one who teaches or studies grammar, rhetoric, poetry and history
Who is Machiavelli?
He was the writer of the Renaissance handbook The Prince for rulers in Italian city-states. He taught that a ruler should adopt a realistic course of action to stay in power and that a ruler should use any methods to achieve his power. He advised the use of cunning, diplomacy, and ruthlessness
searched for old manuscripts (esp. St. Augustine and Cicero) wrote in Latin
writer of The Book of The Courtier, he is an educated aristocrat and his book is a manual
what family patronized the arts of Florence?
de Medici
What is perspective?
to give a sense of depth and distance to art work
why is moveable type considered such a great invention?
b/c it sped the book making process and was cheaper
what are frescoes?
paintings on wet plaster
Who was the universal man of the Renaissance?
Leonardo da Vinci
wrote Sonnets fo Laura
6 points of the gothic church
-flying butresses
-great height
-thin walls
-large stain glass windows
-ribbed vaults
-pointed arches
Name one medieval college
painted Venus of Verbino
outer wall of castle
wrote book on good behavior/ manners (The Courtier)
painted frescoes on the life of St. Francis of Assisi
tithe and sacraments are associated with?
the church
The Holy Roman Empire included much of this present day country.
Crusaders were NOT motivated by...
sympathy for Islam
What is scholastcism
the use of reason and logic to defend CHristian beliefs
Why is the middle ages considered a turning point in History?
b/c of the emergence of the middle class
Why did medieval people join monastaries?
to devote their lives to God
After the Babylonian capitivity and the great schism, the church lost most of its what?
Summa Theologica
Thomas Aquinas
another name for medieval times
middle ages
medieval play that taught a lesson
morality play
Apostle of Germany who defeated the Moors
St. Boniface
painted the Madonna of the Chair
Painted the Madonna on the Primavera and The Madonna of Venus
painted The Gates of Paradise
Universal man of the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci
wrote Don Quixote
Dominican monk who painted The Annuciation
Fra Angelico
philosophy of life that studied the classics and showed that man was the center of all things
heriditary line of Wiliam the Conqueror
law based on pervious cases
common law
based knowledge on experience and was a medieval monk
Roger Bacon
painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Leonardo da Vinci
painted Nightwatch
what was feudal justice based on?
customs and traditions
What was the main purpose of craft guilds?
to traina and protect guild members
Spanish explorer who circumnavigated the globe abd called the man of iron courage
European group who converted the indians into catholics and established fur trade
a spanish explorer
exsquisite home of Louis XIV outside of Paris
Conquistadors came in search of what?
the Edict of Nantes granted rights to who?
Portuguese sailor who sailed to India by going around the Cape of Good Hope
De Gama
route taken by Africnas to be sold for slavery
middle passage
estate who had to pay the taxes
The day the French celebrate Bastille Day
July 14
When did the reign of terror occur?
when the revolution was facing domestic threats
came to Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth
Pounce de Leon
defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Traflager
Lord Nelson
Economic system that states an economy depends on getting and increasing their gold supply
only country Napoleon failed to conquer
chief spokesperson for England in early 1700s
Prime Minister
merchant who takes risks in hope of gaining profits
What was the main purpose of the Bill of Rights?
to protect the rights of individual people
What nation did not finance new world exploration?
Group of Indians conquered by the conquistadors
Why did Napoleon's ideas last long in England?
because his soliders helped spread new ideas
what was a long term effect of the English civil war and common wealth?
the limiting of the king's power
given the title "Defender of the Faith" and formed the Anglican Church
Henry VIII
brought unity and Catholicism back to Spain
Ferninand and Isabella
pays papal fief in order to gain people's power
King John
translated bible from English to and said that sacraments are not necessary
John Wycliffe
it limits the king's power, and said that taxes could not be levied w/o Parliament approval
Magna Carta
sale of church offices
French king captures pope b/c he won't let him tax the clergy
Babylonian captivity
2 large cities in Moslem world of Spain
Cordova and Grananda
the expelling of Moslems
the making of Spain as a Catholic nation
another name for the Thirty Years War
War of Roses
wrote the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
nations who removed tariffs would benefit and that a society woulld benefit if people were allowed to act in their own self interest
Adam Smith
said that the human population was growing faster than the food supply and said that only natural disasters could stop poverty
Thomas Malthus
wrote Communist Manifesto; said that capitilism was the blame for working conditions and thought that their should be a socialist gov. who owned all land and means of production
Karl Marx
urged to improve the living of workers
Jermey Bentham and John Stuart Mill
theory of Evolution
Charles Darwin
british surgeon known for antiseptic surgery
Joseph Lister
samll pox vaccine
Edward Jenner
father of bacteriology: he isolated germs that caused TB and was awarded Nobel Peace Prize
Robert Koch
a German who created the theory of relativity
Albert Einstein
Ivan Pavlov
Russian who studied the behavior of dogs and said that respond to a conditioned stimuli
An austrian who created psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Titern Abbey
William Wordsworth
Idylls of the Kingdom; poet laureate of England
Lord Alfred Tennyson
Hunchback of Notre Dame
Victor Hugo
War and Peace
Leo Tolstoy
Greece War of Independence; Liberty of Barricades; Dante and Virgil in Hell
Eugene Delacroix
Luncheon on the Grass; THe Fifer
father of modernism; The Land Players
Paul Cezanne
Dancers Practicing at The Bar
Edgar Degas
functional living architect
Frank Llod Wright
5th and 9th Symphony
laissez faire economics
the use of natural laws to ecplain the economy
natural selection
nature weeds out the weak
composed Hungarian Rhapsody
Franz Liszt
2 new social sciences created during 1800's
glorifies the individual and encourages nationalism
trying to portray life as it is
invented the seed drill
Jethro Tull
invented the cotton gin and interchangable parts
Eli Whitney
created a process to take impurities out of steel
Henry Bessemer
invented the stemboat The Clermont
Robert Fulton
Samuel Morse
built the first battery
Alexander Volta
his work led to the construction of electric generator
Michael Faraday
invented the telephone
Alexander Bell
invented the phonograph, incadescent light bulb, electric plant and many other inventions
Thomas Edison
created cars, used interchangable parts and the assembly line
Henry Ford
owned monoply in the oil industry
John D. Rockerfeller
wrote Oliver Twist and created a climate for reform
Charles Dickens
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin?
coal and iron resources
large labor forces
market sell goods
government support
financial resources
mass production
creating large quantities of identical goods
limited liability
investors did not lose all of their money in account only the money in the company
total control over one industry
vertical intergration
a business that buys out other small businesses that contribute to their product
Which country was the leader of the Industrial Revolution during the 1800's
an association that helps workers gain better wages and working conditions
labor union
factory system
workers and machines in one place to create goods
What industry was first effected by the factory system?
How did the government respond to the labor unions?
opposition at first but encouraged them later on
what industry was helped by the internal combustion system?
automobile industry
Polish astromer who developed the scientific method and had heliocentric theory
German astronomer who founded modern astronomy, created the forerunner to calcus, and laid foundations for law of gravity and created laws of planetary motion
Johannes Kepler
Galileo Galili
Law of the Falling Bodies, invented the telescope, condemned by Catholic Church
laws of gravity and invented calculus
Issac Newton
Joseph Priestly
Phlogestin Theory said something something was given off during burning
Antoine Lavosier
named oxygen
developed ointment to prevent infection after surgery
Ambroise Lavosier
William Harvey
discovered blood circulation
invented analytical geometry
Rene Descartes
wrote Leviathan
Thomas Hobbes
thought rebellion against government was never acceptable
Thomas Hobbes
said that if people were left alone they would fight constantly
Thomas Hobbes
People must enter a contract and
give up rights to perserve natural rights
wrote Two Treaties of Government
John Locke
English philospher who said that people posess natural rights of life, liberty, and property
John Locke
said that people create the government,grant it authority, may replace the government with a revolution if neccessary, and people are mostly cooperative
John Locke
a Fr. philosopher who supported religious toleration and freedom of speech and said:"I do not agree with a word you say but I will defend it."
swiss who wrote Discourse on the Arts and Sciences and said that titles of nobility should be abolished and believed that human nature was basically good
French philosopher who thought that the government should be separated into judicial, legislative, and executive branches and that they should have checks and balances
Baron de Montesquieu
wrote a 35 vol. encyclopedia
Denis Diderot
Austrian ruler who abolished serfdom by regulating the amount of unpaid work given to peasants
Maria Theresa
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
child prodigy who composed The Magic Flute and The Marriage of Figero
wrote Gullivers' Travels
Jonathan Swift
wrote The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
Edward Gibbons
christopher Wren
St.Paul's Churchin London
Wedgewood China
Josiah Wedgewood
Mrs. Richard Brinsley
Thomas Gainsborough
painted The Naked Maja
Fransisco Goya
German composer
George F. Handel
another name for The Age of Enlightenment
Age of Reason
American commander in WWI
George John Pershing
supreme allied leader
Marshall Foch
"he kept us out of the war"
Woodrow Wilson
WWI Poster artist
James Montgomery Flagg
his assasination led to WWI
Archduke Francis Ferninand
Kaiser Wilhem II
ruler of Germany during WWI
Nicholas II
Russian ruler overthrown by Russian Revolution during WWI
small country Austria-Hungary first declared War on
Battle of Jutland
Naval battle in WWI that gave Britian the upper hand
Bloodiest battle
Battle of Verdun
german generals led armies over Russia and eventually caused Russia to drop out of WWI
Battle of Tannenburg
What event brought England into WWI
Germany entered Belguim- a neutral country Britian promised to protect
two front war
fight in two spots at once
US soliders entering WWI
Whed did WWI end?
Nov., 11, 1918
world leader representing France at WWI peace conference
English leader at WWI peace cofeerence
US leader at WWI peace conference
Italian leader at WWI peace conference
What were the 14 points
basis for peace discussion made by Wilson
League of Nations
coalitions of nations to promote peace
agreemnet between nations to help each other after WWI
collective security
Family line Elizabeth I followed
Family line after Elizabeth I's death
Stuarts of Scotland
blessed by God to be a king
Diveine Right of Kings
King's supporters
led the Cavaliers
Charles I
Parliament supporters during English Civil war
leader of the Roundheads
Oliver Cromwell
political party in England that favors toleration of Protestants
politcal party in England that supports the King and the Anglican Church
Habeas Corpus Act
protects a citizen from arbitrary arrest, said that you could not be held in prison whithout a fair trial and that you can't be imprisoned for the same crime twice
Glorious Revolution
a time when William and Mary took power and there was no bloodshed in England
What are the three provisions of the English Bil of Rights
(important) 1. King may not suspend laws from obeying the laws 2. may not levy tax w/o Parliament's consent 3. may not interfere in Parliament's consent
Act of Toleration
all except Catholics may attend services
Act of Settlement
to insure that only members of the Anglican Church can gain the throne
what makes up the british cabinent?
advisors of the current ruler including the Prime Minister
Exclusion Act
prevented Catholics from gaining the throne, made by whigs, tried to prevent James II from gaining power but it did not pass
Petition of Rights
Charles II signed it agreeing that his powers were limited and that he could not levy taxes w/o parliament's approval
preached for reform and was persecuted as a heresey
a reformer who drew u 95 Thesis expressing what was wrong with the church
Martin Luther
believed in predestination and that God preordains
John Calvin
theologian of the Reformation
John Calvin
wrote Institutes of Christian Faith
John Calvin
prophet of the Reformation
Martin Luther
French document that said all men are created equal
Declaration of the Rights of Man
brought the Prebystrian Church to Scotland
John Knox
Iron law of wages
wges goes through cycles
"tinderbox" for War
Ottoman Empire
most prolific inventor
Thomas Edison
cause of war in "war guilt clause"
why was the "tinderbox" a tinderbox?
b/c nationalism led to wars
the reformation was a protest to what church?
Armistice Day today
Vetrans Day
the age of exploration and commercialization were similar b/c....
they were stimulated by people seeking profits
Henry VIII
"Defender of Faith" until he argues w/Rome about getting divorce, he decides to create the Anglican Church, father of Elizabeth I
St. Ignasus OF LOYOLA
founded the Jeisuits and CLC
Diet of Augsburg
said that a Lutheran prince could choose what religion his province was
French Calvinist
Act of Supremacy
law passed in England that made Henry head of the Church and state
Church's attack against Reformation and attempt to bring people back to the Church
Counter Reformation
rebirth of classical learning
wrote Book of Courtier
painted works of St. Francis
painted Battle of San Roman
painted The Annunciation
Fra Angelico
Madonna of the Primavera and Madonna of Venus
painted Madonna of the Chair and was florentine
painted Madonna of the Chair and was florentine
works include Pieta, David and Moses
founder of Venitian School
venitian artist who painted Venus of Urbane
David and Gattemala
Gates of Paradise
built St. Peter's cathedral
invented oil paint
Van Eyck
wrote The Prince of Folly
self portraits and Nightwatch
german woodcutter and sculptor who created Praying Hands
Don Quixote
Greatest Elizabethan writer
founder of FLorentine School of art
de Medici
founder of Venitian school of Art
give a sense of dpth and perception in art work
what sped up the book making process?
moveable type
created the printing press
Universal Man of the Renaissance
da Vinci
river FLorence is located on
Arno River
3 greatest artists of Revolution
Raphael, da Vinci, Michelangelo
Maximillian Robspierre
led the Reign of Terror
Louis XVI
the sun king, reconized need for reform but unable to resolve the problem
Lord Nelson
English Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Traflager
Where did Louis XIV live?
Henry Navarre
a protestant who inherits the throne and becomes Henry and converts to catholicism
Jean Colbert
managed Royal finances during Louis XIV and was determined to increase royal power and strengthen the economy
Louis XIV
Sun King (not 16th)
persecuted with treason
Louis XVI
1st Estate
2nd estate
3rd estate
Burgoise and peasants and Middle Class
slogan of French to save Paris during Rev.
"Liberty, equality, fraternity."
a new government of elected legislative and an executive branch that has 5 directors, could not resolve economic problems and had an sgressive foriegn policy so Napoleon eventually took over
Napoleon's final defeat
Napoleon's downfall
Vaco da Gama
sailed around the tip of Africa to India
Ferninand Magellan
Man of Iron Courage who was the first to sail arounf the world
Vasco de Balboa
found the Pacific
Ponce de Leon
found Florida
Hernando de Soto
went from Florida to the Missippi River
Fransisco Cornando
sought city of gold and found Buffalo and Colorado
Francis Drake
rounded S. America
John Cabot
Italian who landed on New Foundland
Jaques Cartier
Named the St. Lawerence River
conquers the Incas
Henry Hudson
dutch who settle on Hudson Bay
Fr. Marquette
father of New France he found Quebec
Fr Marquette (real)
travelled Great Lakes
Samuel de Champlain
founder of New France and found Quebec
Moluccos Islands
Spice Islands
wealthy landowners who ruled together
merchants willing to take risks in hopes of profit
feudal justice was based on?
customs and traditions
conquestadors came in search of what?
wrote Ode to Grecian Urn
John Keats
noble savage and social cotract
tWhat did Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith Warn?
that governments must not interfere with the economic system
How did Napoleon gain power?
by overthrowing the directory
middle passage
voyage of Africans across the atlantic ocean