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24 Cards in this Set

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Duomo of Florence
Who: Brunulleschi
What: main cathedral in Florence
When: 1436
Where: Florence
Why: first dome built since antiquity, built using Roman models
Sellaio alterpiece
Who: Jacopo Sellaio
What: painting of Mary, 4 martyrs: John the Baptist, Lucy, Catherine, Sebastian
When: 15th century
Where: Italy
Why:
- use of symmetry, shading, perspective, contrapose, use of bright colors.
- shows anti-Lutheranism because Lutheranism shows Jesus in middle
- Scholasticism to humanism
German peasants' freedom flag
Who: German Peasants
What: Pamphlet detailing Peasants' wishes
When: 1524
Where: Germany
Why: before this was Luther's Reformation; Luther was against the Peasant Revolt
Elizabeth I
Who: Elizabeth I
What: painting of Elizabeth I
When: late 16th century
Where: England
Why: Defeated Spanish Armada in 1588, reinstated Protestantism after Bloody Mary
Black Plague
Who: Europeans, Asians
What: Bubonic plague that spread through Europe, Asia
When: late 14th century
Where: Europe, Asia
Why: Consequences were depopulation, economic effects, persecutions, religion, social change
Petrarch
Who: Founder of Humanism
What: Wanted return of papacy to Rome, Italian unification. Wrote Africa, brought ot light virtues of Roman Republic
When: 14th century
Where: Avignon, France
Why: First to realize Platonic Thought, Greek studies provided new cultural framework. Led to rise in Civic Humanists: those who were civic-minded, looked to govts. of ancient world
Boccacio
Who: greatest of Petrarch's disciples, important Renaissance humanist
What: wrote On Famous Women, Decameron
When: 14th century
Where: Florence
Why: Decameron showed the effects of Bubonic plague
Burckhardt
Who: Swiss historian
What: Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
When: 19th century
Where: Switzerland
Why: Found shift from corporate medieval society to modern spirit in 14th/15th century. The strife between the empire and the papacy created a political and moral vacuum which led to the birth of the self-conscious state and the liberation of the creative individual. Saw Renaissance humanism as a revival of classical antiquity, and as era of one man's joyous discovery of himself
Avignon Papacy
Who: Popes
What: seat of the pope was moved from Rome to Avignon
When: 1305 - 1378
Where: Italy, France
Why: Although there was conflict before the Babylonian captivity, during the Avignon papacy, the papacy was strongly influenced by the French throne; this created disrespect and eventually Schism.
100 Years War
Who: Edward III, Philip VI
What: When William of Normandy conquered, it created a state on both sides of English Channel; English held Guienne, in South France. Edward III was dissatisfied with Philip VI of France in regards to not restoring a part of Guienne taken by Charles IV. English also attempted to control Flanders; Philip supported Scotland against England. England received Calais, all of Aquitane; in 1429, Joan of Arc raised siege of Orleans. After the fall of Bordeaux in 1453, England only had Calais.
When: 1337 - 1453
Where: France, England
Why: inflicted misery on France, but successor Louis XI united France because of the destruction of the feudal nobility; France became under royal authority. England ceased to become a continental power, sought expansion as a naval power
Gutenberg
Who: Johannes Gutenberg
What: creation of movable type printing press, masterpiece was Gutenberg Bible
When: 15th century
Where: Germany
Why: allowed fast dissemination of information during religious conflicts
Erasmus
Who: Dutch humanist
What: believed that learning applied to Church and State would regenerate Europe. Wrote the Praise of Folly, which put emphasis on Christian ideals, attacked pious superstitions, practices in the Church
When: 16th century
Where: Netherlands
Why: First to analyze New Testament. He did not take sides during the Reformation; did not want change in doctrine, but did agree with main points of Luther. Was against social disorders, but was accused of having started it
John Hus
Who: Religious reformer
What: influenced by Wyclif, promoted ecclesiastical reform, was against indulgences. He was excommunicated in 1409 for attacking the corruption of the clergy, then executed after the Council of Constance in 1414-1418.
When: 15th century
Where: Bohemia
Why: Igniters of the Protestant Reformation
Alexander VI
Who: Pope, illegitimate son was Cesare Borgia.
What: Signed the Treaty of Tordesillas which seperated the lands between Spain and Portugal
When: Late 15th century
Where: Holy Roman Empire
Why: Him and Cesare Borgia were Machiavelli's ideal princes; through them, corruption was at its highest (Banquet of Chestnuts)
Indulgences Controversy
Who: Jan Hus, John Tetzel, Martin Luther
What: remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christian's sins. Johann Tetzel, a Dominican Monk, was a seller of indulgences
When: 15th/16th century
Where: Europe
Why: Created controversy through John Hus and Martin Luther
Anabaptists
Who: radical in Reformation, founded by Thomas Muenster
What: believed baptism was the only external witness to profession of faith; rejected infant baptism, believed in seperation of church and state
When: 16th century
Where: Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Moravia
Why: Condemned by Protestants, Catholics alike. Partially resulted from Peasants' War
John Calvin
Who: French-born Swiss Theologian
What: Broke with Catholic Church, set forth tenants of Presbyterianism in Institutes of Christian Religion
When: 16th century
Where: France, Hungary, Scotland, Netherlands, Germany
Why: Once Bible is accepted as sole source of God's law, duty of humans is to preserve, interpret it. Violently opposed Anabaptists, disagreed with Luther over Last Supper, predestination. Calvinism was extremely important for a society going from agrarian to commercial one: accepted capitalism, encouraged trade, production and opposing exploitation, self-indulgency
Charles V of Holy Roman Empire
Who: Holy Roman Emperor
What: Faced problems of Protestant Reformation, dynastic conflict with King Francis I of France for supremacy in Italy, and advance of Ottoman Turks. Diet of Worms in 1521, defeated Francis I in 1525, Council of Trent in 1545, his brother Ferdinand negotiated the Peace of Augsburg
When: 16th century
Where: Europe
Why: Leading figure during the Reformation
Cuius regio eius religio
Who: Charles V
What:Whose district it is, his religion it is. Term in Peace of Augsburg; temporary settlement arising from Reformation.
When: 1555
Where: Augsburg, Germany
Why: Didn't end religious dispute; religious dispute continued after Thirty Years War
Act of Supremacy
Who: Henry VIII
What: declared Henry VIII as supreme head in earth of the Church of England; occurs when he breaks with Catholic Church because they would not annull his marriage. Supposed to be "Defender of the Faith" and spoke out against Luther earlier; made Henry VIII head of the Church
When: 1534
Where: England
Why:
Edict of Nantes
Who: Henry IV
What: decree to restore internal peace to France; gave full rights to French Protestants, full Protestant control of cities
When: 1598
Where: France
Why: La Rochelle fell to Richelieu, Louis XIV revoked the Edict. This weakened French economy, made France look realy bad in eyes of English, Germans
Treaty of Tordesillas
Who: Alexander VI
What: agreement signed between Spain, Portugal to divide up non-Christian lands. Shifted demarcation line such that Portugal was given Brazil.
When: 1494
Where: Europe
Why: Spanish did not resist Portuguese expansion into Brazil; France, England was not allowed in these areas
Cardinal Richelieu
Who: Prime Minister of France under Louis XIII
What: established absolute monarchy in France, destroyed power of Huguenots, kept religious toleration.
When: late 16th/early 17th
Where: France
Why: Helped Gustavus II of Sweden during Thirty Years War, war had resulted in heavy taxation, people were dissatisfied (Alexander Dumas). "Father of modern nation state, modern centralized power, secret service". Centralized power of France,
Peace of Westphalia
Who: ---
What: general settlement ending Thirty Years War, signed between Sweden and France.
When: 1648
Where: Sweden
Why: Marked the end of Holy Roman Empire, inaugurated the modern European state system; sovereignty of German states was recognized, France emerged as dominant European power; Forced emigration was ceased, Calvinism was recognized.