Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/94

Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A collection of cloned DNA sequences that contains a copy of every DNA sequence in the genome.
Genomic DNA library
An enzyme(an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) that makes a complementary DNA copy of an mRNA molecule
REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
Molecules, that when bound to protein, identifies the protein for degradation by proteolytic enzymes.
UBIQUITIN
An enzyme that catalyzes the addition of an acetyl group to a molecule.
ACETYLTRANSFERASE
Genes in normal cells that encode products that stop uncontrolled cell proliferarion.
TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE
A comples of proteolytic enzymes that degrade proteins
PROTEASOME
Distinct proteins produces fromt eh same gene by alternative splicing.
iSOFORMS
Tumor type that impairs function of tissue
MALIGNANT
Molecular technique used to amplify short segments of DNA
PCR
DNA composed of sequencs from different sources
RECOMBINANT DNA
A cell containing two sets of nuclear chromosomes (2n)
diploid
The enzyme that lengthens the ends of chromosomes
telomerase
RNA that is associated with ribosomal structure
rRNA
Ribosome site in which charged tRNAs (aminoacyl-tRNAs)enter the ribosomes during translation elongation
A-SITE
A mutant strain of a given organism that cannot synthesize a molecule required for growth and therefore must have the molecule supplied in the growth medium for it grow.
AUXOTROPH
Prokaryotic DNA polermase responsible for removing RNA primers in DNA replication
POL I
Region of DNA polmerase resonsible for removing RNA primers in DNA relication
PROMOTER
A change in DNA nucleotide sequence
MUTATION
The complex that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron to release an intron and join two adjacent exons
SLICEOSOME
Used to describe the genotype of the heterogamete sex with respect to genes located on the sex chromosome
DOMINANT EPISTASIS
Interaction of alleles in which the heterozygote displays both the dominant and recessive phenotypes
CO-DOMINANCE
Region of the X chromosome known to be responsible for "counting" of the number of X chromosomes in a cell
XIC REGION
Type of epistasis that results in a 12:3:1 ratio
DOMINANT EPISTASIS
Type of mutation in which a piece of a chromosome is moved to a different location in the genome
TRANSLOCATION
A small protein that marks other proteins for degradation
UBIQUITIN
A bacteriophage integrated into the chromosome of a lysogenic bacterial cell
PROPHAGE
Chromatin that is highly condensed and is transcriptionally inactive
HETEROCHROMATIN
A process in which genetic information is transefered by means of extracellular pieces of DNA in bacteria
TRANSFORMATION
A controlling site, adjacent to a promoter,that is responsible for controlling transcription of genes in an operon
OPERATOR
A molecule in bacterial operons that brings about the transcription of an inducible operon
INDUCER
Alleles of a gene seprate during meiosis
LAW OF SEGREGATION
An individual that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest
MONOHYBRID
A cross between 2 individuals that are heterozygous for same pair of alleles
MONOHYBRID CROSS
A form of gene interaction in which one gene masks the phenotype of another
EPISTASIS
Heterozygote displays a phenotype that is a blend of 2 pheotypes conferred by 2 alleles
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
When mutated, can result in a lethal phenotype
LETHAL ALLELE
dominantly inherited disorder
HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE
recessively inherited
Cystic Fibrosis
The ability of a gene to affect an organism in may different ways
PLEIOTROPY
Sex of an individual influences the extent of expression of a phenotype
Sex-influenced
Sex of an individual determines whether or not phenotype is expressed at all
SEX-LIMITED TRAITS
Frequency in which a dom. or rec. allele manifess itself within individuals in a population.
PENETRANCE
The degree to which a pentetrant allele is phenotipically expressed in an indiv.
EXPRESSIVITY
Results from non-disjunction
ANEUPLOIDY
adenine/guanine
PURINES
cytosine/thimine(RNA replace w/Uracil)
PYRIMIDINES
A always pairs w/T
2 H BONDS
C always pairs w/G
3 BONDS
Run in opposite directions w/respect to 5'-3' ends
Anti-parallel
~occurs in S phase of cell cycle
~a faithful relication of all d.s DNA in the cell
DNA REPLICATON
DNA no matter what type it is adds nucleotides to the free 3' end of a polynucleotide chain, takes it to the _____
3' END OF A GROWING CHAIN
catalyzes formation of phophodiester bond in creation of a bond,energy is released by hydrolysis between 1st 2 phosphates
DNA POLYMERASE
catalyzeds the formation of new DNA in a 5'-3'direction
DNA POLYMERASE
~DNA polsynthesizes new DNA 5'-3'
~DS DNA must be anti-parallel
~DNA synthesiz has to follow opening of fork
REPLICATION FORKS
creates nicks in sugar-phosphate to relieve unwinding tension
TOPOIMERASE
seals nicks in sugar-phosphate backbone between Okazaki fragments
LIGASE
~catalyzes formation of phosphodiester bonds in a growing RNA chain
RNA POLYMERASE
why have introns?
1SEQ'S W/IN INTRONS COULD BE RESPONSIBLE FOR REGULATION TXN OF GENES.
2A SINGLES GENE CAN ENCODE MULTIPLE FORMS OF A PROTEIN
~change in a DNA n.t sequence
~happen during relication,even
after mismatch repair
~environmental factors
MUTATION
is a significant source of diversity of bacterial cells
~combining of DNA fron 2 indiv.in to the genome of a single individual
RECOMBINATION
types of recombination occuring in bacterical cells
~TRANSFORMATION
~TRANSDUCTION
~CONJUGATION
alternation of a bacterial genotype by the uptake of foreign DNA from surrounding environment
TRANSFORMATION
recomb. due to viruses carrying bacterial genes fron 1 host to another. from lysogeny->lytic cycle
TRANSDUCTION
direct transfer of genetic materical between 2 bacterial cells that are temporarily joined.
CONJUGATION
A term applied to an gene that produces a range of phenotypes in individuals of the same genotype
Expressivity
Allele interaction in which the heterozygote displays a phenotype that is a blend of phenotypes produced by each allele
Incomplete dominance
Type of reproduction in which two parents donate genetic material to offspring
Sexual reproduction
Term that describes the failure of chromosomes to separate during cell division
Non-disjunction
A type of chromosomes that does not carry genes conferring sexual characteristics
Autosome
Phase of meiosis in which crossing-over occurs
Prophase I
Term that describes chromosomes that carry the same type of genes
Homologous chromosomes
Describes an individual that has two copies of every chromosome in most cells
Diploid
An allele that is expressed in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition
Dominant
Term used to describe a gene that has multiple phenotypic effects on an individual
Pleiotropic
A replication enzyme responsible for untwisting the DNA double helix
helicase
A noncoding region of nucleic acid removed during splicing
intron
An mRNA modification that protects mRNA from degradation in the cytoplasm
polyadenylation
A type of polymerase that does not require a 3’ OH to initiate nucleic acid synthesis
primase
Bacterial protein that assists RNA polymerase in transcription initiation
sigma factor
Showed that in double-stranded DNA, 50% of the bases are purines and 50% are pyrimidines
DNA pol III
Transformed non-virulent strains of bacteria into virulent strains with just presence of DNA
exon
Provided the first evidence of a specific relationship between genes and enzymes
helicase
Studied DNA using X-ray diffraction
DNA pol I
Used bacteriophages viruses to show that DNA was the genetic material used to infect bacterial cells.
5’ capping
Describes gene expression in which genes are being transcribed all the time
constitutive
Transfer of DNA between bacterial cells that is mediated by a virus
transduction
Describes a single mRNA transcript containing two or more adjacent protein-coding genes
polycistronic
Ribosomal site that contains a tRNA linked to a growing chain of amino acids
P site
Type of cell in which an F factor has been excised from the Hfr chromosome and re-circularized into an F plasmid
F’ cell
Phage life cycle in which the phage takes over the bacterium and uses it to express the phage’s genes and to produce progeny phages
lytic cycle
DNA library that represents expressed genes
cDNA library
A small molecule involved in controlling expression of many regulated genes
effector
Phage that can undergo both the lytic and lysogenic cycles
temperate
mRNA structure responsible for ribosome recognition
5’ cap