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15 Cards in this Set

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Gene
A short strand of DNA, carried by Chromosomes
chromosome
gene-carriers found in the Nucleus of a cell
chromatid
Each of the two daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome
haploid
A single set of chromosomes 23 (half the full set of genetic material) present in sex cells
diploid
A full set of genetic material consisting of paired human chromosomes from each parent. Full set of chromosomes (46)
centromere
The central portion of the chromosome to which the spindle fibers attach during mitotic and meiotic division
Autosomes
cells that do not determine sex
sex cells/gamets
A specialized reproductive cell through which sexually reproducing parents pass chromosomes to their offspring
homozygous dominant
A diploid organism that has the same dominant allele for a given gene locus on both members of a homologous pair of chromosomes.
homozygous recessive
having recessive alleles at the same locus on a chromosome. This in the only time a recessive trait will be phenotypically (physically) seen.
heterozygous
having two different alleles of a single gene.
genotype
Entire genetic identity of an organism; includes alleles
phenotype
Visible/Measurable characteristics of an individual (ie eye colour)
allele
alternative forms of a single gene that occupies the same locus on a chromosome. Randomly donated from parents to children
mitosis
: is when the contents of a cell duplicate producing two daughter cells, each with the same amount of cellular material.