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22 Cards in this Set

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Allele (alleles) vs. gene/trait
alleles are alternative versions of a gene. traits are variants for a character
ex: Aa are alleles. Traits include white and purple flowers
Trait
each variant for a character
purple or white flowers for flower color of peas
homozygous/ true-breeding
when true-breeding plants self-pollinate, all their offspring are the same variety
plant with purple flowers has children that are all purple
hybridization
mating/crossing of 2 true-breeding parents
short and tall bugs mate
P generation (parental generation)
different true breeding parents in hybridization
purple and white flowers
F1 generation (1st filial generation)
hybrid offspring of P generation
all purple flowers
F2 generation (2nd filial generation)
products of F1 hybrids self-pollinating
3/4 were white flowers and 1/4 were purple
dominant allele
determines the organism's appearance
purple flower is dominant
recessive allele
no noticeable affect on the organism's appearance
white flower is recessive
Punnett square
diagrammatic device for predicting allele composition of offspring from parents
2 x 2 box
Heterozygous
organism with 2 different alleles for a gene
Bb
Phenotype v. genotype
phenotype is the physical trait of an organism. genotype is its genetic makeup
genotypes PP and Pp have the same phenotype- purple
testcross
breeding of a recessive homozygote w/ an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype. used to find genotype of dominant
used by mendel on peas
monohybrids v dihybrids
monohybrids are heterozygous of 1 character. dihybrids are heterozygous of 2 characters
monohybrids- Aa
dihybrids- AaBb
pedigree
family tree describing interrelationships of parents and children across the generations
Kate Middleton has a humble pedigree
polygenic inheritance
combined effect of at least 2 genes on a single phenotypic character
AABBCC is a very dark person
wild type
normal/dominant phenotype for a character
brown fur
linked genes
genes located on the same chromosome and are inherited together in genetic crosses
thousands of genes in a single chromosome
parental type
when phenotype of offspring matches their parents
purple children to purple parents
recombinant types
when phenotype of offspring is different from their parents
white children to purple parents
sex-linked gene
gene located on a sex chromosome
why only male fruit flies can have white eyes
barr body
when inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object called a barr body and only activated in ovaries
heterozygous female will express 1 allele in half her cells and the other allele in the other half