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17 Cards in this Set

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POPULATION
the complete set of individuals, objeccts, or scores that the investigator is interested in studying
SAMPLE
subset of the population, chosen for time-economic reasons
VARIABLE
any property or characteristic of some event, object, or person that my have different values at different times depending on the conditions
CONSTANT
a property or characteristic of some event, object, or person that does not have different values at different times
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
the variable in an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator

(e.g., when measuring the effects of various levels of alcohol consumption on social behavior, the IV is alcohol level)
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
the variable that the investigator measures to determine the effect of the IV

(e.g., when measuring the effects of various levels of alcohol consumption on social behavior, the DV is social behavior)
DATA
the measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment

also known as raw or original scores, data include age, gender, and number of subjects
STATISTIC
a number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample

(e.g., the average value of a SAMPLE set of scores)
PARAMETER
a number calculated on population data that quantifies a characteristic of the population

(e.g., the average value of a POPULATION set of scores)
OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
three types include:
(A) naturalistic observation
(e.g., anthropology)

(B) parameter estimation
(e.g., surveys, public opinion polls, market research)

(C) correlational studies
(i.e., attention on two or more variables to see whether or not they are related, e.g., obesity and high blood pressure)
TRUE EXPERIMENTS
type of research in which an attempt is made to determine whether changes in one variable produce changes in another variable
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
concerned with techniques that are used to describe or characterize the obtained data
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
involves techniques that use the obtained sample data to infer to populations
AUTHORITY
(METHOD OF KNOWING)
something is considered true because of tradition or because some person of distinction says it is true

(e.g., believing in evolution because a distinguished professor says so)
RATIONALISM
(METHOD OF KNOWING)
using reasoning alone to arrive at knowledge; it assumes that if the premises are sound and the reasoning is carried out correctly according to the rules of logic, then the conclusions will yield truth
INTUITION
(METHOD OF KNOWING)
knowledge acquired through sudden insight: a clarifying idea that springs into consciousness all at once as a whole; it is not arrived at by reason
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
(METHOD OF KNOWING)
utilizing both reasoning and intuition for establishing truth, it relies on OBJECTIVE assessment

by some means, usually by reasoning deductively from existing theory or inductively from existing facts or through intuition, the scientist arrives at a hypothesis; he or she designs an experiment to objectively test the hypothesis, and the resultant data is either supported or rejected