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33 Cards in this Set

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Dr. James Lind
Discovered Scurvy - tx - limeys
Vitamins
Do not provide energy, enable body to use energy, should not be over used, mega doses can be toxic, 13 vitamins by only 11 have been researched and are on RDA.
Some vitamins are destroyed by ____, ____, and _____.
light, heat, or water
Measured by weight
mg, mcg, or IU
Prone to deficiency
those with an unbalanced diet, absorption difficulties, celiac, or Chron's
tx for deficiency
synthetic (manufactured) or natural vitamin replacement (body cannot differentiate between these)
2 classifications of vitamins
fat soluble
water soluble
Fat Soluble
A, D, E, K (all the rest are water soluble)
Fat soluble and cooking
cooking doesn't destroy fat soluble as readily
absorption of fat soluble
absorbed into the lymphatic system through the lacteals, transported, emptied into subclavian,
Need _____ to be absorbed and stored in the body
fat
excessive amounts are _____
stored
Deficiencies are slower to appear in body b/c they can be _____
stored
Vit A
Carotene and Retinol (carrots and retina) - main cause of blindness in the world is xerophthalmia
Vit A functions
promote growth, sustain normal vision, support normal reproduction, maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes, increasing resistance to infection
Vit A sources
liver, spinach, green, yellow and orange veg, cream, butter, and egg yolk
Vit A Requirements
IU (FDA uses RE - retinol equivalents) - 5000
Hypervitaminosis - A
ingesting over 50,000 IU a day for sustained periods, in children 20,000 IU per day for months - symptoms - orange coloration
Deficiency - A
Night blindness, dry rough skin, increased susceptibility to infections
Vit D
Ergocalciferol, Cholecalciferol
Vit D Functions
Regulating use of Ca and Ph, promotion of calcium and ph absorption "Bones and Teeth"
Vit D absorption
intestine - and chemically changed in liver and kidneys, excess amts stored in liver and adipose tissue
Vit D sources
Best: Sun
Fish liver oil
milk - fortified
Hypervitaminosis - D
Must be avoided b/c can cause Ca and phosphorous deposits in soft tissues, kidney and heart damage and bone fragility - kidney stones can deposit
Vit D deficiency
inhibited absorption of Ca and Ph, leads to Rickets or Osteomalacia - most at risk breast fed infants or those getting too little sunshine
Vit E
Alpha-tocopherol, Tocopherols
Vit E Functions
antioxidant, carried in blood by lipoproteins, used to retard spoilage, reproductive vitamin, protects vits A & C
Vit E Sources
Vegetable Oils, leafy green veg, whole grains, butter and margarine, wheat germ, egg yolk, liver
hypervitaminosis - E
Deficiency
nontoxic
rare except in malabsorption disorders
Vit K
Menadione - aquamephyton
Vit K functions
essential in formation of prothrombin, necessary for blood clotting
Vit K Sources
liver, califlower, cabbage, spinach, margarine, green leafy veg, soybean and other veg oils
Deficiency K
Treatment
Hemorrhagic symptoms
vit K IM