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33 Cards in this Set

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Picornavirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Examples of virus (Diseases)
(Unenveloped RNA viruses)
Single molecule, (+)stranded RNA
Icosahedral

Polio viruses (poliomyelitis, paralysis, aseptic meningitis)
Coxsackie viruses (aseptic meningitis, rash, colds)
ECHO viruses (aseptic meningitis, rash, colds)
Rhinoviruses (colds)
Hepatitis A (hepatitis A)
Reovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Uneveloped RNA viruses)
Multiple molecules, ds RNA
Icosahedral

Rotaviruses (infant diarrhea)
Orthomyxovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Multiple molecules, (-)stranded RNA
Helical

Influenza viruses (influenza)
Paramyxovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Single molecule, (-)stranded RNA
Helical

Parainfluenza viruses (colds)
Respiratory syncytial virus (colds and infant pneumonia)
Measles virus (measles)
Mumps virus (mumps)
Rhabdovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Single molecule, (-)stranded RNA
Helical

Rabies virus (Rabies)
Coronavirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Examples of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Single molecule, (+)stranded RNA
Helical

SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS, common cold)
Togaviruses

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Single molecule, (+)stranded RNA
Icosahedral

Various equine encephalitis viruses (encephalitis)
Retroviruses

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped RNA viruses)
Two identical molecules of (+) stranded RNA
Uncertain

HIV-1 (AIDS)
Various tumor viruses (tumors)
Parvovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Unenveloped DNA)
Single molecule, ss DNA
Icosahedral

B-19 (childhood rash and aplastic anemia)
Papovavirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Example of virus (Diseases)
(Unenveloped DNA)
Single molecule, circular ds DNA
Icosahedral

Papilloma-viruses (Warts in various anatomical sites)
Adenovirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Unenveloped DNA)
Single strand, linear ds DNA
Icosahedral

Adenoviruses (colds, conjunctivitis, etc.)
Herpesvirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Eneveloped DNA)
Single molecule, linear ds DNA
Icosahedral

Herpes simplex virus (see notes)
Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox zoster)
Cytomegalovirus (congenital, etc.)
EB virus (mononucleosis, aka. heterophile positive)
Poxvirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped DNA)
Single molecule, linear ds DNA
No nucleopcapsid symmetry

Smallpox virus (smallpox, eradicated)
Molluscum contageosum virus (skin lesions)
Hepadnavirus

Nucleic acid genome
Nucleocapsid symmetry
Exampe of virus (Diseases)
(Enveloped DNA)
Single molecule, circular DS DNA (for most of its length)
Icosahedral

Hepatitis B virus (hepatitis B)
All viruses transmitted by the fecal-oral routes do or do not have an envelope?
Do not have an enveople; lack of envelope indicates stability of the virus
Examples of viruses that are commonly transmitted via the fecal-oral route
Poliovirus
Coxsackievirus
Echovirus
Hepatitis A virus
ECHO viruses (Type A and B)
Enteric picornaviruses designated by a number from 68
Norwalk virus (calcivirus)
What are the common means of transmission of enveloped viruses?
Direct contact, e.g.
Blood, body flood, sexual transmission
Insect bite or animal bite
Person-to-person (aerosol)
Examples of viruses that are commonly transmitted by blood or body fluid
HIV
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Hepatitis B and C
Examples of viruses that are commonly transmitted by insect or animal bite
Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus

Rabies virus
Examples of viruses that are commonly transmitted from person to person
Influenza virus
Measles virus
Rubella virus
Respiratory synctial virus
Varicella-zoster virus

Rhinoviruses (unenveloped)
Viruses that cause gastroenteritis
 Rotaviruses (dehydrating GE infection in 0-18 infants)
 Enteric adenoviruses (0-24 mo.)
 Norwalk virus (a calcivirus, epidemic in adolescents and adults)

 Other calcivirus (infants)
 Astroviruses (all age groups)
What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis?
Diarrhea and/ or vomitting
Are enteroviruses significant causes of gastroenteritis?
No, coxsackievirus, echovirus and polio are not significant causes of gastroenteritis
Which group of viruses cause the common cold most frequently?
Rhinoviruses
- A type of picornaviruses that are not enteroviruses
- Single molecul, (+) stranded RNA
- Normally isolated from trachea organ culture
- NOT enteric pathogen, because cannot survive at a low pH of the stomach
What diseases are commonly caused by the enteroviruses?
ASEPTIC MENINGITIS
Common cold
Systemic infection with rash
Paralytic disease (very rare)
Which viruses cause neontatal myocarditis?
Coxsackie B virus

Neonatal myocarditis is
: a generalized infection (not just heart).
: enteric epidemiology
: identified only in newborn nursery epidemics (however, coxsackie myocarditis can occur in adults as well)
Group B Coxsackieviruses commonly cause...
Epidemic pleurodynia
: Characterized by thoracic pain aggravated by deep breaths; probably due to viral attack upon intercostal muscles
Group A Coxsackieviruses commonly cause...
1) Herpangina (not the same as herpes or angina)
: Characterized by acute sore throat with other systemic signs of infection; ulcerating vesicles in the throat (upper mouth/ tonsil area)
2) Hand-Foot-and Mouth disease in children
: Characterized by vesicular lesions at the hand, the good and the mouth at ~ the same time
Reovirus replication
Not enveloped
Contains ds RNA and polymerase to translate dsRNA to mRNA
mRNA is used to make more viral RNA polymerase
Which virus is the major cause of infant mortality in developing countries?
Rotaviruses
- Cause infectious viral diarrhea of infants.
- fecal-oral transmission
- in developing coutry, the rotavirus infection can be easily treated with rehydration.
Adenovirus replication
Adenoviruses have ds DNA. (Not enveloped)
Assembled in the nucleus
Viral mRNA and protein synthesis are regulated
Adenovirus virions causes...
airborne infections, e.g.
 Epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis*
 Common cold
because adenoviruses are stable even when dried
 gastroenteritis and diarrhea by some enteric adenoviruses ***

*The most common cause of conjunctivitis is bacterial
*Various enteroviruses also cause epidemic conjunctivitis
Which virus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries?
1) Rotaviruses
2) Enteric adenoviruses
3) Calcivirus and astrovirus
...plus bacterial and unknown causes