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62 Cards in this Set

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Look at me while I am reading your mind...

You are thinking....
MAKE THIS CLASS END ALREADY D`^*IT!!!!!!!!!!!

& I totally agree with you.
what 2 things make endocrine glands different than exocrine glands
secrete HORMONES directly into the blood stream
- well vascularized

lack ducts
define hormone
chemical substance, produced in the body, which has specific regulatory effects on the activity of other organs/ cells
name the 'endocrine organs' as defined by Dr. Newkirk in class (9 of them)
Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Pineal

Adrenal Cortex

Adrenal Medulla

Chemoreceptor Organs

Thyroid

Parathyroid

Islets of Langerhans
hypothalamus produces
antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
- concentrates urine

oxytocin
- reproductive fxns
hypothalamus releases
nothing

Hypothalamus produces ADH and oxytocin which is released by the posterior pituitary
what hormones does the pituitary make
Pars distalis (anterior pituitary/ adenophypophysis)
- ACTH
- GH
- TSH
- LTH
- FSH
- LH

Pars Nervosa (posterior pituitary/ neurohypophysis)
- ADH
- Oxytocin

Pars Intermedia
- MSH
describe the pars distalis
(aka adenohypophysis)

surrounded by CT

corts or clusters of cells closely associated with vascular sinuses
- chromophobic cells
- chromophilic cells
pars distalis makes and releases
ACTH
- tells adrenal to make cortisol

TSH

GH

LTH

LH

FSH
understand the basic anatomy of the pituitary gland
Pituitary (Pars Distalis)

chromophilic cells

Acidophils
- larger than chromophobic cells
- granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (PAS negative granules)
- make GH and PRL

Basophils
- larger than acidophils (PAS positive granules
- less eosinophilic cytoplasm
- make TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH
Pituitary (Pars Distalis)

chromophobes
- AKA: chief cells, principle cells, reserve cells, gamma cells
- small round cells with little cytoplasm (no cytoplasmic granules)
- fxn unknown
Pituitary (Pars Intermedia)

Cords or clusters of cells closely associated with vascular sinuses
- Occasionally forms follicles
- Basophilic cells

Makes and releases:
- Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Pituitary (Pars Intermedia)

Cords or clusters of cells closely associated with vascular sinuses
- Occasionally forms follicles
- Basophilic cells

Makes and releases:
- Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Pituitary - Pars Nervosa

AKA: Neurohypophysis

Nervous tissue
- Unmyelinated axons (cell bodies are in the hypothalamus)
- ‘Pituicytes’ (neuroglial)

Release
- Oxytocin
- Antidiuretic hormone
Pituitary - Pars Nervosa
AKA: Neurohypophysis

Nervous tissue
- Unmyelinated axons (cell bodies are in the hypothalamus)
- ‘Pituicytes’ (neuroglial)

Release
- Oxytocin
- Antidiuretic hormone
that is how I feel right about now
go on and try it, the slides make about the same sense both ways
what is the pineal gland

describe it
Dorsal evagination of the roof of the diecephalon

Photoreceptor organ in lower vertebrates
- Receives light information from other parts of the brain
- May function as biological clock
- Sleeping, dreaming

Covered by pia mater (meninges)

Composed of
Astrocytes
- Between blood vessels and pinealocytes (interstitial cells)
Pinealocytes (epitheliod)
- Large cells with large, round nucleus
Eosinophilic cytoplasm



Makes:
- Serotonin
- Melatonin
Adrenla Cortex - Zona glomerulosa

Subcapsular

Clusters, arches of cells
- Cuboidal to columnar
- Eosinophilic cytoplasm
- Small nuclei

- Makes mineralocorticoids (salt!)
- Aldosterone
don't forget the RAAS
what is the widest zone of the adrenal cortex
zona fasiculata
Adrenal Cortex - Zona fasciculata

Widest zone

Middle zone

Cords 1-2 cells wide
separated by vascular sinuses

Sometimes: Very foamy cytoplasm due to lipid (spongiocytes)

Makes glucocorticoids (sugar!)
- Cortisol
Adrenal Cortex - Zona fasciculata

Widest zone

Middle zone

Cords 1-2 cells wide
separated by vascular sinuses

Sometimes: Very foamy cytoplasm due to lipid (spongiocytes)

Makes glucocorticoids (sugar!)
- Cortisol
Adrenal Cortex - Zona fasciculata

Widest zone

Middle zone

Cords 1-2 cells wide
separated by vascular sinuses

Sometimes: Very foamy cytoplasm due to lipid (spongiocytes)

Makes glucocorticoids (sugar!)
- Cortisol
Adrenal Cortex - Zona Reticularis

top= zona glomerulosa
middle = zona reticularis
bottom left = medulla

Anastomosing cords
- Anastomosis: connection between parts of any branching system

Similar to zona glomerulosa


Makes sex hormones (sex!)
- Testosterone etc
Adrenal Cortex - Zona Reticularis

Anastomosing cords
- Anastomosis: connection between parts of any branching system

Similar to zona glomerulosa


Makes sex hormones (sex!)
- Testosterone etc
Adrenal Medulla

Ganglion cells

Glandular cells
- Cuboidal to columnar cells
- Arranged around blood vessels
- Basophilic cytoplasm with fine granules

Makes catecholamines
- Epinephrine (adrenalin)
- Norepinephrine
Adrenal Medulla

Ganglion cells

Glandular cells
- Cuboidal to columnar cells
- Arranged around blood vessels
- Basophilic cytoplasm with fine granules

Makes catecholamines
- Epinephrine (adrenalin)
- Norepinephrine
Adrenal Medulla

Ganglion cells

Glandular cells
- Cuboidal to columnar cells
- Arranged around blood vessels
- Basophilic cytoplasm with fine granules

Makes catecholamines
- Epinephrine (adrenalin)
- Norepinephrine
chemoreceptor organs
Aortic and carotid bodies

Sense blood oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide

Stimulate respiration
describe thyroid follicles
Multiple grapes
- Variable sized
- Lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium
- Basal nucleus
- Eosinophilic cytoplasm
- Microvilli
what does the thyroid release?
thyroid hormone (duh)

T3 & T4 which are released directly into the surrounding capillaries
Thyroid follicles

In an active gland the follicles are smaller and the lining epithelium is taller
- Because the colloid is secreted as soon as it’s made…
what does thyroid hormone do?
regulates metabolism
a fat lazy dog is a diagnostic sign of
a fat lazy owner

or

an owner in vet school who has not time for their own animals








or hypothyroidism
Thyroid - C cells

AKA: parafollicular cells, clear cells

Present in interstitium

Clear cytoplasm

Make:
- Calcitonin (CT)
- Decreases calcium
Thyroid - C cells

AKA: parafollicular cells, clear cells

Present in interstitium

Clear cytoplasm

Make:
- Calcitonin (CT)
- Decreases calcium
Parathyroid gland

Cords, clusters, strands, sheets, follicles or rosettes of secretory cells
- Closely associated with blood vessels

Chief (principle) cells
- Light and dark chief cells
- Eosinophilic cytoplasm (not granular)


Makes Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
- increases serum calcium
Parathyroid gland

Cords, clusters, strands, sheets, follicles or rosettes of secretory cells
- Closely associated with blood vessels

Chief (principle) cells
- Light and dark chief cells
- Eosinophilic cytoplasm (not granular)


Makes Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
- increases serum calcium
Parathyroid Gland

Oxyphil cells
- Large cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm
- Function unknown

Only present in some species
- Cattle
- Horses
= Humans
pancreas exocrine vs endocrine
Exocrine component
- Digestive enzymes

Islets of Langerhans
- Scattered throughout
- Regulate glucose metabolism
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

Pale-staining cells
Alpha cells
- Make glucagon (increases blood glucose)
Beta cells
- Make insulin (decreases blood glucose)
C cells
- Function unknown
Delta cells
- Make somatostatin (inhibits glucagon & insulin)

These cell types CANNOT be differentiated with routine light microscopy
Pancreas - Islet of Langerhans

Pale-staining cells
Alpha cells
- Make glucagon (increases blood glucose)
Beta cells
- Make insulin (decreases blood glucose)
C cells
- Function unknown
Delta cells
- Make somatostatin (inhibits glucagon & insulin)

These cell types CANNOT be differentiated with routine light microscopy
this is an example of a diabetes mellitus cat with low self esteem

Due to lack of insulin production
- Destruction of the islets

or due to ‘insulin resistance’

Hyperglycemia
what makes calcitonin & what does it do
made by thyroid C cells

decreases calcium levels
what can increase serum calcium levels and where is it produced
parathyroid hormone

i'm not answering the second half of that question b/c if you can't figure it out, you're screwed...
where is ACTH produced

what does it do
pituitary - pars distalis

tells adrenal cortex to make cortisol
where is MSH produced
in pars intermedia (by chromophilic basophils)
where is serotonin produced
pineal gland
where is aldosterone secreted
adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
where are mineralocorticoids secreted
adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
where are sex hormones secreted
adrenal cortex

zona reticularis
where are glucocorticoids secreted
adrenal cortex

zona fasciculata
where is epinephrine secreted
adrenal medulla
what is colloid
storage form of thyroid hormone
what are the 4 cell types of the islets of langerhans & what do they do
Alpha cells
- make glucagon
- increase blood glucose

Beta cells
- make insulin
- decrease blood glucose

C cells
- function unknown

Delta cells
- make somatostatin
- inhibits glucagon and insulin
what is produced by the pars distalis
ACTH

TSH

LTH

GH

FSH

LH
where is growth hormone secreted
pituitary - pars distalis
where is LTH secreted
pituitary - pars distalis
what do pituitary acidophils secrete?


basophils?
acidophils
- GH
- PRL

Basophil
- FSH
- LH
- TSH
- ACTH
- MSH