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40 Cards in this Set

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TCA cycle intermediates
Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?

Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl-CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate
Regulated glycolytic enzymes
Hexokinase (-G6P)
Glucokinase (+insulin)
PFK1 (-citrate -ATP +AMP +F-2,6-BP)
Pyruvate kinase (-Ala, -ATP, +F-1,6-BP)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (-ATP, -NADH, -Acetyl-CoA)
Regulated TCA cycle steps
Citrate synthetase (-ATP)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (+ADP, -ATP, -NADH)
Alpha-KG dehydrogenase (-NADH, -ATP, -succinyl CoA)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
HGPRT deficiency, can'd do purine salvage pathway, get uric aciduria. X-linked
I cell disease
Lack of mannose-6-phosphate transfer enzyme in golgi network means can't tag lysosomal enzymes for traffic to lysosome. Get secreted instead->coarse facies, early death
Energy from TCA cycle per acetyl CoA
3 NADH --> 9 ATP
1 FADH2 --> 2 ATP
1 GTP --> 1 ATP

12 ATP/cycle via oxidative phosphorylation
Galactosemia
Mild: Galactokinase deficiency->galactitol->childhood cataracts

Severe: Gal-1P uridyl transferase deficiency-> very high galactitol->liver damage, galactosemia, galacturia, cataracts, mental retardation

Tx both w/glucose & lactose free diet
Fructosuria
Fructokinase deficiency: benign fructosuria

Fructose intolerance: Lack of aldolase B to convert F1P to DHAP and glyceraldehyde->vomiting w/fructose load, mental retardation, etc.
Cofactors for PDH and a-KGDH
Vitamin B1->thiamine->TPP
Vitamin B2->riboflavin->FAD+
Vitamin B3->niacin->NAD+
Vitamin B5->pentothenate->CoA
Lipoic acid
Cori cycle
1) Anaerobic glycolysis in muscle to pyruvate
2)Pyruvate -> lactate to regenerate NAD+
3) Lactate to liver via blood
4) Lacate converted back to pyruvate and then to glucose by gluconeogenesis (6 ATP)
5) Glucose sent back to muscle in blood
Energy yield of anaerobic glycolysis
2 ATP

Reducing equivalents in NADH used to convert pyruvate to lactate via LDH to regenerate NAD+ to keep running glycolysis
Hexokinase vs glucokinase
Hexokinase: all cells, inhib'd by G6P

Glucokinase: liver & islet cells, stim'd by insulin with lower Km but higher Vmax->glucose storage and
SAM
S-adenosyl methionine

ATP+Met-->SAM->->Homocysteine

Need B12 & folate to regenerate methionine from ATP

Regeneration of methionine is how B12 converts dietary folate into form usable by purine synth and thymidylate synthase
GPCRs that signal via Gs
Gs stims cAMP synth

B1->inotrope/chronotrope
B2->SMC relaxation
H2->stomach
V2->aquaporin insertion in kidney
D1
GPCRs that signal via Gq
Gq > PLC > DAG+IP3 > PKC & Ca2+

H1->allergy
a1->vasoconstrict
V1->vasoconstrict
M1
M3
GPCRs that signal via Gi
Gi inhibs cAMP synth

M2
a2
D2
Collagen types
Type 1: classic (bone, skin)
Type 2: cartilage/joints, hyaline
Type 3: Reticulin (skin etc), granulation tissue
Type 4: basement membranes
Electron transport chain
NADH > e- >
Complex I > H+
CoQ
FADH2 > e- > Complex II >CoQ
complex III > H+
Cyt C
Complex IV > H+ + O2
H+ > ATP synthase > ATP
Oligomycin
Inhibs ATP synthase > can't dissipate H+ gradient > ETC machinery gets backed up and stopped > ROS
2,4-dinitrophenol
Allows H+ to leak out of mitochondrial matrix > uncouples electron transport from ATP synthesis gradient
Rotenone
Inhibs e- transport > stops ETC > reduces proton gradient
Cyanide
Inhibs e- transport > stops ETC > reduces proton gradient
Irreversible gluconeogenesis enzymes
Pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria
PEP carboxykinase
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase
Glucose-6-phosphatase (liver only)
von Gierke's disease
Type I glycogen storage disease:

Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

Liver can't export glucose:
-Glycogen accum->hepatomegaly
-Hypoglycemia
-Lactic acidosis
Essential amino acids
PVT TIM HALL

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arginine
Leucine
Lysine
PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arginine
Lysine
Leucine
Purely ketogenic amino acids
Leucine & lysine only. Both are also essential
Purely glucogenic essential AA:
V-MATH

Valine, methionine, arginine, threonine, histidine
Urea cycle
Ordinarily, Careless Crappers Are Also Frivolous About Urination

Ornithine
Carbamoyl phosphate
Citruline
Asparatate
Arginosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
Urea
Black urine
Alkaptonuria: can't break down homogentisic acid, a metabolite of tyrosine
Musty odor, pale skin, mental retardation
Phenylketonuria: can't convert phenylalanine (musty and retarded) to tyrosine (pale)
Cystinuria frequency
1:7000
Cystinuria defect
COLA

Defect of AA transporter responsible for resorption of Cysteine, Ornithine, Lysine & Arginine from proximal tubule
Components of sucrose
Fructose + glucose
Components of lactose
GaLactose + glucose
Function of ApoA1
Cofactor for LCAT
Function of ApoB
Binds LDLR
Function of ApoCII
Cofactor for lipoprotein lipase
Function of ApoE
Cofactor for lipoprotein binding to receptor for uptake
Cherry red spot
Tay-Sachs disease, deficiency of hexosaminidase, so can't degrade GM2 ganglioside

Also Nieman Pick disease, deficiency of sphingomyelinase