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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What were the Palmer Raids?
Attorney General who launched a series ofraids against communists, immigrants, radicals, etc.
What was the Volstead Act?
The prohibition of alcohol (18th Amendment)
What was the Scopes Trial?
A Tennessee teacher is charged and convicted for teaching the theory of evolution.
What is the Ku Klux Klan?
A clan organized to put down blacks, communists, and catholics, often in a violent manner.
Who was Andrew Mellon?
Secretary of Treasury who created "Office of the Budget". He cut the national debt by 1/3. "Trickle Down Economics"
What was the idea of "Trickle Down Economics?"
The idea was to give tax breaks to the rich. In turn, the rich would give to the poor.
Who was Al Smith?
1928 Catholic democratic candidate against H. Hoover.
What was the idea of "a Return to Normalcy" (Harding)?
Going back to the American ways before the war.
Who was Calvin Coolidge?
"Silent Cal". A vice president for Harding and later 20's president dedicated to "laissez-faire".
What was the Teapot Dome Scandal?
Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall's secret leasing of oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land.
Who were Sacco and Venzetti?
Italian anarchists who were falsely accused of robbing a bank and murder based on the "evidence" that the suspects "looked italian." They are a symbol of the racial separation of the time.
What was the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
The highest protective tariff in U.S. History.
What was the Bonus March?
WWI veterans marched on DC demanding payment of their promised bonuses.
Who was Herbert Hoover?
The president blamed for the Great Depression.
Who was John C. Lewis?
"The Voice of Labor," leader of the CIO.
Who was Charles Coughlin?
Radio clergyman who spoke against Roosevelt's New Deal. He favored a guaranteed annual income.
Who was Huey Long?
He was another opposition to the New Deal Program. He proposed the "Share Our Wealth" Plan.
What was the Court Packing Plan?
FD Roosevelt wanted to increase the size of the Supreme Court with justices who supported his New Deal programs?
What was the New Deal?
FDR's plan to pull the US out of the depression.
What were the main causes of depression?
Monopolistic pricing, unsound banking practices, overproduction, high tariffs and a tightening of the money supply by the Federal Reserve Board.
What was the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)?
A law enacted to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production. This law was declared unconstitutional.
What were some criticisms of the New Deal?
Some believed the poor wasn't being helped enough. Some called for a greater and more equitable redistribution of wealth. Also many republicans criticized the increase in the national debt.
What was the Wagner Act?
AKA National Labor Relations Act. Protects workers' rights after supreme court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.
What is imperialism?
Spreading a country's territory by taking over other countries.
What were some causes of the Spanish-American War?
The sinking of the U.S.S Maine, imperialism and Yellow Journalism were the three biggest causes.
What is the Panama Canal?
Panama's independence from Columbia in 1903 allowed the US to build a canal through Central America. Panama was made a protectorate of the US, which gave the US a 10 mile strip of land to build a canal.
What was the Platt Amendment?
It made Cuba an American protectorate.
What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
Teddy Roosevelt declared the US "policemen of the western hemisphere."
Who was Pancho Villa?
Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico and was hunted by John J. Pershing. He was never captured.
What was the Lusitania?
A British passenger ship sunk by a German submarine. 1200 were killed including 128 Americans.
What was the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)?
The United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.
What were President Wilson's Wartime Goals for WWI?
He wanted WWI to be "a war to end all wars".
What were Wilson's Fourteen Points?
The Fourteen Points were Wilson's ways to accomplish international peace. The two most important points were self-determination of countries and the League of Nations
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
A treaty signed by many different countries to try to put an end to all wars.
Who was Henry Cabot Lodge?
Leader of Senate Foreign Relations Committe and also the reservationists.
What defines U.S. Isolationism in the 1920's?
The U.S. shut itself up from most foreign relations such as communication and trading. This was to prevent any involvement in troubles countries might have.
What were the Neutrality Acts, 1935-1939?
Restricted the US from trading with warring countries.
What happened at Pearl Harbot?
December 7, 1941, Japanese kamikazes bombed Pearl Harbor, a US military base. This caused the US to join WWII.
What was the Lend-Lease Act?
The United States of America supplied Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for land to house a military base.
What was the U.S. Military Strategy of WWII?
The US strategy was to defeat the warring European nations first, and then defeat Japan.
What is "island hopping"?
Strategy used in the pacific to regain lost territory from the Japanese.
What was the Normandy Invasion?
AKA D-Day. June 6th, 1944. An invasion led by Eisenhower in through France. It was one of the bloodiest battles in WWII.
What was the Manhattan Project?
Development of the atomic bombs
What's the importance of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
These are the two cities that were bombed by the US.
What was the Yalta Conference?
February 1945, the "Big 3" (US, Britain and Russia) meet again to make decisions about the occupation of Germany.
Who is George C. Marshall?
Chief of Staff. Commander of the Army and Air Corps during WWII.
Who was Dwight Eisenhower?
In charge of the D-Day invasion. Supreme allied commander of our troops in Europe.
Who was Douglas MacArthur?
The Southern Pacific Commander.
Why did Truman make the decision to use the A-bombs on Japan?
Mostly it was used to end the war and to save american lives. Recently, it's been believed that Truman was also using them as a show of force to the Russians.
Which countries made up the U.N. Security Council?
US, Russia, Great Britain, France and China
What happened to Berlin after WWII?
Berlin, like Germany, was occupied in parts. The western side was occupied by the US, France and Great Britain and was mostly democratic. The eastern side was occupied by Russia and was communist.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
The U.S. declared it would come to the aid of any nation threatened by communism. Initially it announced its aid to Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine was the cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy for several decades.
What was the Marshall Plan?
In 1947 the U.S. introduced the Marshall Plan and offered financial aid to spark the economic recovery of Western European nations still suffering from WWII. The Marshall Plan provided for counter force to the Soviets, and no nation that received aid under the Marshall Plan ever turned to communism.
What was N.A.T.O and why was it created?
A military alliance of North Atlantic nations. It was established to combat Soviet aggression in Europe.
Who was Mao Zedong?
The communist leader of China. He defeated Chiang Kai-shek and China has been communist ever since.
Who was Joseph McCarthy?
A senator from Wisconsin. He falsely accused people of being communists. He is associated with the Red Scare.
What took place in the Korean War?
North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, prompting the UN to send force to stop the aggression. When UN forces entered North Korea, Chinese troops entered the war and forced UN forces out of North Korea.
What is peaceful coexistence?
Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states.
What was Eisenhower's Farewell Address?
Eisenhower warns the US of the military industrial complex.
What is "containment"?
America's attempt to "contain" the threat of the spread of communism
What is the New Frontier?
Kennedy's plan to improve the US.
What is the Great Society?
Lyndon B. Johnson's plan to improve the US.
What was the Bay of Pigs?
The US's failed attempt to retake Cuba.
What was the Berlin Wall?
Because many germans were trying to move from communist Berlin to Democratic Berlin, a wall was built to keep travelling between the two cities at a minimum.
Who were the 1968 candidates?
Richard Nixon (R), Hubert Humphrey (D), and George Wallace (I). Nixon wins the election.
What was the Brown vs. Board of Education trial?
The supreme court ruled that segregated schools were inherently unequal in 1954. This reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
What was the March on Washington, 1963?
Over 250000 people gathered at Lincoln Memorial to ask Congress for civil rights legislation. the highlight of this event was the famous "I Have a Dream" speech delivered by Martin Luther King, Jr.
What was the Nation of Islam?
An African American organization led by Elijah Muhammad. Preaching racial separation, the Nation of Islam believed in maintaining racial separation and seizing freedom by any means necessary, including violence.
Who was Malcom X?
An important spokesperson for the Nation of Islam. He advocated violence on behalf of the african american population. He's assassinated in 1965.