Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/105

Click to flip

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819 - Spain gave Florida to the US
The Alamo
Fort in Texas, Mexican forces killed many Texans
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by John Adams to keep Jefferson's party from printing bad things about him
American System
pre-Civil War measures designed to unify and strengthen nation by means of protective tariffs, national bank, and other improvements
Anaconda Plan
Three-part strategy devised by Union to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War
Antebellum
Descriptive of period before the Civil War
Antifederalist
Opponent of strong central government
Articles of Confederation
Document adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and approved by states in 1781 - outlined form of gov't in the new US
Bank of the United States
Hamilton, established by Congress. Opposed by Madison.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendements to the Const.
Black codes
Post-civil war South, laws passed to severly restrict African Americans
Bleeding Kansas
Kansas territory pre-Civil war, battle ground between pro and anti-slavery forces
Boston Massacre, Boston Tea party
Mass - british soldiers vs. colonists, colonists killed.
TP - Protest against Tea Act
Cabinet
President's advisors, Washington created first
Carpetbagger
Northener who moved South after Civil War
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of plants, animals and diseases between Western and Eastern Hemisphere
Committees of correspondence
Group set up by colonits to exchange information about British threats to their liberties
Common Sense
Pamphelt by Thomas Paine, called for seperation of colonies from Britain
Compromise of 1850
series of measures to settle disagreements between free and slave states. Rejected when first proposed by Clay, but accepted when seperated and presented individually by Douglass. Most contriversial = fugitive slave act
Confederacy
CSA, South - 1861 - formed secession from Union
Conquistador
Spainards who travled to America as explorer in 16th century
Cotton gin
1793, Eli Whitney, cleans seeds from cotton fibers
Declaration of Independence
Written by Jefferson in 1776, delcared colonies independent from England
Emancipation Proclaimation
1863 - executive order by Lincoln to free all the slaves in all regions behind Confederate lines
Enlightenment
18th century movement - emphasized the use of reason and scientific method
Erie Canal
Connects Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825
Excise tax
Tax on production, sale or comsumption of goods produced in a country
Federalism
political system in which national government and state government share power
Battles of Lexington and Concord
first military engagement of the American Revolutionary War, began conflict between 13 colonies and England
15th Amendment
1870 - allows African Americans to vote
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
Slogan used in 1844 campaign as a call for US annexation of the Oregon Territory.
Forty-niner
Someone who migrated to Cali to find gold
14th Amendment
1868 - slaves are now considered citizens
Freedmen's Bureau
Agency set up to help formar slaves after the Civil War
Freeport Doctrine
idea expressed by Douglass in 1858 that any territory could exclude slavery by refusing to pass laws supporting it
Free-Soil Party
1848 - formed to oppose extension of slavery into US territories. Supported Wilmot Proviso
French and Indian War
France vs. Britain, 1754 - 1763
Ended with defeat of France
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of Compromise of 1850, ensured that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage
Gadsden Purchase
1853 - US bought territory from Mexico, establishing current borders.
Gag rule
Rule limiting or preventing debate on a subject. Presented by Southerners to prevent anti-slavery people from petitioning against it
Gettysburg Address
1863 - speech by Lincoln during war, important
Great Awakening
revival of religious feeling in the colonies during 1730s and 1750s
Great Comprimise (Connecticut Compromise)
Agreement to establish a two-house legislature. States have equal representation in one house and by population in the other.
Headright system
Virginia Company's policy of granting 50 acres of land to each settelr who accompanied him
Indentured servant
Person contracted to work for a limited period of time in exchange for travel expenses, shelter, and food.
Indian Removal Act
1830 - forced Native Americans east of the Mississippi to the West
Industrial Revolution
Replacement of hand-tools with large-scale machines, change in social and economic organization
Intolerable Acts
1774 - Series of laws enacted by Parliament to punish Mass. colonists for the Boston Tea Party
Journeyman
Skilled worker employed by a master
Judicial Review
Supreme Court's power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional - Marbury vs. Madision
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established federal court system and # of supreme court justices
Judiciary Act of 1801
Increased # of federal judges, allowing John Adams to fill posts with Federalists
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - established territories of Kansas and Nebraska and allowed residents to decide whether or not to allow slavery
Know-Nothing Party
American Party, formed in 1850s to prevent political influence of immigrants
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law that established plans for surveying the lands West of the Appalachain Mts.
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - purchase by US from France of Louisiana Territory (Miss river to Rocky Mts) for $15 million
Loyalists
Colonists who supported British gov't during American Revolution
Manifest Destiny
19th century belief that the US would inevitably expand westwars to the Pacific and into Mexican territory - that it was their "destiny"
Marbury vs. Madison
1803 - "Midnight judge" sues because his position is revoked because it is invalid - case in which Supreme Court developed judicial review
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819 - Supreme Court ruled Maryland had no right to tax Bank of the US, strengthening power of federal gov't control over economy
Mestizo
Mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
Mercantilism
Economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade
Midnight judge
Judge appointed by Adams in the last hours of his presidency to increase the amount of Federalists in the federal court
Monroe Doctrine
Policy of US opposition to European interference in Western affairs
Middle Passage
enslaved Africans to West Indies and then North America
Jay's Treaty
Treaty with Britain to avoid war, written by John Jay.
Navigation Acts
1651 - series of laws enacted by Parliament to tighten England's control of trade in the colonies
Triangular trade
Goods and people exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, West Indies, and the colonies
Puritans
Wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual in the Church of England - came to America to flee persecution
Minute Men
Revolutionary war, Patriot soldiers that could be readey for battle in a minute
First Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia, stop Intolerable Acts, drafted Articles of Association to boycott British goods
Second Continental Congress
Created Olive Branch Petition, drafted Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
sent by Second Continental Congress to King George III to propose a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain. Was rejected.
XYZ Affair
1797 - French officials demanded bribe from US diplomats
Ratification
Official approval of the Const. or of an amendment by the states
Virginia Plan
Proposed at constitutioanl convention, favored population-weighted representation
New Jersey Plan
Proposed one vote per state for equal representation, used as model for Senate
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Opposed and attacked Sedition Act
Constitutionalism
Limitation of gov't by law. Balance between power of gov't and power of people.
Whiskey Rebellion
1791 - Pennsylvania, rebellion of settlers who resisted the excise tax on liquor.
Whig Party
Formed in 1834 to oppose policies of Andrew Jackson
Wilmot Proviso
Proposed none of the territory aquired from the war with Mexico should be open to slavery.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court decided Congress held the power to regulate interstate navigation.
Nullification
State's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
War Hawk
Member of Congress that favored war with Britain
Treaty of Ghent
1814 - Ended the war of 1812
Tariff of Abominations
Calhoun's name for an 1828 tariff that disadvantaged the South while benefitting the North
National road
1811 - federally funded, from Maryland to Illinois
Spoils System
(Jackson) Elected candidates reward supporters with gov't jobs.
13th amendment
1865 - abolished slavery
Reconstruction
Period of rebuilding that followed the Civil war, Confederacy readmitted to the Union
Trail of Tears
Marches where Native Americans were forcibly removed from GA to Indian territory with thousands dying on the way
Panic of 1837
financial crisis in which banks closed and credit system collapsed, bankruptcies and high unemployment
Scalawag
white Southerner that joined republican party after the Civil war
Annex
Incorporate territoy into existing nation
Mexican-American War
Supported by Democrats, opposed by Whigs. Ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1848 - Treaty ending Mexican-American War, Mexican territories of California and New Mexico were ceded to the United States.
Abolitionist
Someone against slavery
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's rights convention. (Elizabeth Stanton, Lucretia Mott)
Shay's Rebellion
Debted Mass. farmers protesting increased state tax
Secession
Withdrawl of a state from the Union
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
Missouri came in as slave state, Maine as a free state. Prohibited slavery for all new states north of the 36°30' line.
Popular soveriegnty
People of a state vote to decide an issue
Fort Sumter
The confederacy attacked Fort Sumter, beginning the Civil War.
Republican Party
Opponenets of slavery in the terriotories