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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Constitutional Convention
Jonathan Dayton
The youngest delegate to the Constitutional Convention
fees on imported goods
Three-Fifths Compromise
determined that 3/5 of a state's slave population would be counted for both taxation and representation
those who wanted the new Constitution adopted
The Federalist
a series of 85 essays which gave sound arguments in favor of the Constitution; helped bring victory to the Federalists in New York
the year of the Constitutional Convention
a voluntary union in which the central government is subordinate to the local governments and has only the powers they grant it
those who opposed the Constitution
implied powers
powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution but implied therein
elastic clause
necessary and proper clause; added to ensure that Congress should not be bound in any important matters by mere oversights or omissions in the Constitution
Alexis de Tocqueville
Frenchman who came to America in 1831; one of the greatest political thinkers of the Modern Age; published Democracy in America in 1833
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
checks and balances
a system devised to check the power of the various branches of the national government; protects citizens against tyranny
bicameral legislature
A legislature composed of two houses
Articles of Confederation
a plan for union adopted by Congress in November of 1777; had several weaknesses, but did accomplish a successful land policy for the Northwest Territory
three weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
At least nine states had to approve a measure before it could be passed by Congress, and all thirteen states had to approve for the articles to be amended. The central government had no executive or judicial branches. Congress lacked the power to tax and to perform other essential duties
George Washington
Former commander of the colonial army; presided over the Constitutional Convention; first President of the United States
James Madison
A delegate of Virginia who attended the Annapolis Convention and the Constitutional convention; remembered as the Father of the Constitution
Land Ordinance
(1785) provided for the entir Northwest Territory to be surveyed and and divided into townships
Benjamin Franklin
Great American statesman who attended the Constitutional Convention
Northwest Territory
the area bound by the Ohio River, the Mississippi River, and the Great Lakes
seizure of property for nonpayment of debts
New Jersey Plan
called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for all states and for the creation of executive and judicial branches; in essence, the governmental system would continue as it did under the Articles of Confederation, but the national government would have power to tax and regulate commerce
the Critical Period
democratic republic
rule by the people with a written constitution to protect the basic rights of the minority from bein infringed upon by the majority
Northwest Ordinance
(1787) proed for the gradual development of self-government in the Northwest Territory
Shays' Rebellion
incident in which Daniel Shays and an army of farmers and debtors forced several courts to close down in western Massachusetts in 1786 to prevent any further foreclosures
the three branches of government
executive, legislative, and judicial
the first and last states to ratify the Constitution
Delaware was first; Rhode Island was last
"Great Decision"
the decision of the Convention delegates to draft a new Constitution
Daniel Shays
A former military officer who led a rebellion of farmers and debtors in western Massachusetts in 1786
Alexander Hamilton
A delegate of New York who attended the Annapolis Convention and the Constitutional Convention
"Critical Period"
the years (1781-1789) during which the Articles of Confederation served as the basis for America's national government
the two most famous Americans to attend the Constitutional Convention
George Washington and Ben Franklin
John Leland
The most influential leader of the Virginia Baptists
Constitutional Convention
a convention held in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787 to revise the Articles; produced the Constitution of the United States
Virginia Plan
called for a bicameral legislature with representation based on state population and for the creation of executive and judicial departments; gave a number of specific powers to the national government
five states carved out of the Northwest Territory
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
the two states where the connection between church and state was the closest
Virginia and Massachusetts
U.S. Constitution ratified
Bill of Rights
Noah Webster
The great American educator who wrote History of the United States
William Paterson
Presented the New Jersey Plan to the Convention
Independence Hall
name for the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia; where the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
granted Congress power to regulate commerce with certain limitations; it could not levy export tariffs; and it could not regulate the slave trade, at least until 1808
William Paterson
Presented the New Jersey Plan to the Convetion
Edmund Randolph
Proposed the Virginia Plan to the Convention
John Dickinson
Led the committee which drafted the Articles of Confederation and proposed them to Congress in 1776
Great Compromise
established a bicameral legislature to satisfy both the large and small states; often called the Connecticut Compromise
the size of a township and section of the Land Ordinance
Townships were six miles square; sections were one mile square
the religious group most harassed by established religion
Isaac Backus
A Baptist leader who became the most influential figure in the long battle for religious freedom in Massachusetts
the document called a "bundle of compromises"
U.S. Constitution
Connecticut Compromise
the Great Compromise; so-called because Connecticut delegates played an important role in the compromise