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83 Cards in this Set

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What is the main function of the urinary system?
to produce urine
kidney's functions
1) urine formation
2) pH regulation
3) body fluids & elect. reg.
4) long-term BP reg.
5) erythropoiesis
Where kidney located?
1) retroperitoneal (behind peritoneal cavity)
2) at L1
What is the function of the ureter?
transport urine from kidney to bladder
urethra female
shorter and wider
only for urinary purpose
urethra male
loner and narrower
urinary and reproductive purposes
renal cortex
outer portion
renal medulla
inner portion
renal medulla divided into?
renal pyramids
base of pyramids
towards the cortex
apex of pyramids
1) towards the medulla
2) aka "papilla"
each papilla drain into
minor calyx
2 to 3 minor calyx join ot form
major calyx
2 to 3 major calyxes join to form
renal pelvis (continuous with the ureter)
the functional unit of the kidney
nephron
all the nephrons are in the
cortex
all of the urine is produced in the
cortex
path of blood flow (artery)
1) renal artery
2) 1-2 segmental artery
3) several lobar arteries
4) interlobar artery
5) arcuate artery
6) interlobular artery
7) afferent afterioles
path of blood flow (venous)
1) interlobular vein
2) arcuate vein
3) interlobar vein
4) renal vein
5) inferior VC
renal veins do not have
segmetnal or lobar vein
Which vessels establish the limit between cortex and medulla?
arcuate vessels
All of the glomeruras are in the
cortex
two types of nephrons
1) cortical nephron
2) juxtamedullary nephron
cortical nephron
1) majority
2) most of tubular systems are in cortex
juxtamedullary nephron
1) minority
2) loof of Henle is deep in the medulla
structure of the nephron starts at
the end of the arrerent arteriole
structure of the nephron
1) glomerulus and Bowmans capsule (renal capsule)
2) proximal convoluted tubule
3) loop of Henle (descending & ascending limb)
4) distal convoluted tubule
descending limb of loop of Henle
1) thinner
2) goes down
ascending limb of loop of Henle
1) thicker
2) goes up
distal convulted tubule goes into
collecting duct
collecting duct
each nephron drain into 1 collecting duct, and each collecting duct receives several nephrons
juxtaglomerular apparatus
1) near the afferent arterioles
2) detect the BP related to flow of blood
3) recrete renin to adjust BP
glomerulus
1) a network of capillaries
2) starts with arteriole and end with arteriole
proximal convoluted tubule
1) epithelial cells
2) lot of mitochondria (energy needed)
3) lots of microvilli
purpose of microvilli
to increase the surface area for absorption/reabsorption
major functions of proximal tubule
1) active reabsorption
2) secretion
descending limb of the loop of Henle
1) thin segment
2) squemous epithelial cells
3) microvilli
4) small # of mitochondria
5) water easily diffuses from the thin segment into the interstitial space
distal tubule
1) sparce microvilli
2) numerous mitochondria
3) actively reabsorb Na, K, and Cl
collecting ducts
1) some microvilli
2) numerous mitochondria
3) actively reabsorb Na, K, and Cl
three processes of urine formation
1) filtration
2) reabsorption
3) secretion
urine formation takes place in the organ's
cortex
filtration
1) in glomerulus
2) non-selective
3) passive process
definition of filtration
is the movement of materials across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman's capsule to form filtrate
passive transport of filtration
1) move both solute & solvent follows a pressure gradient (except for blood cells & proteins)
normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
125 ml/min.
glomerular (blood) hydrostatic pressure
55 mm Hg
blood colloid osmotic pressure
30 mm Hg
capsular hydrostatic pressure
15 mm Hg
net outward pressure
10 mm Hg
55-(30+15)=10
Glomerular filtration
is the first step and a physical process
process of glomerular filtration
1) water and solutes filter out of the blood into Bowman's capsule through the glomerular-capsular memb.
fluid filters out of gromerule into Bowman's capsule because of?
a pressure gradient resulting from the hydrostatic pressure inside the gromeruli
hydrostatic pressure inside the gromeruli
is really high because the affarent art. is larger than the efferent one (more volume gets in than out in the time unit)
hydrostatic pressure inside the gromeruli oppose to?
1) capsular hydrostatic pressure
2) plasmatic oncotic pressure in the filtrate
80 % of the normal GFR is reabsorbed by
proximal convoluted tubule
? ml/min. enter the loop of Henle
25 ml/min.
descending loop of Henle
1) is permeable to water
2) 10 ml/min. are reabsorbed
3) leaving 15 ml/min.
ascending loop of Henle
1) is not permeable to water
2) permeable to Na with energy
distal tubule
1) 15 ml/min. enter the distal tubule
2) 13 ml/min. are reabsorbed
3) leaving 2 ml/min. to enter the collecting duct
collecting duct
1) absorb water with ADH
2) ~1 ml/min. is lost as urine by nephron
hydrostatic pressure
forces fluids and solutes circulating within the glomeruli towards the Bowman's capsule
filtrate
1) 180 L/day
2) includes everything but blood cells and large proteins
3) isotonic with plasma (290-300 mOsm)
urine
1) 1.5 L/day
2) can be hypotonic or hypertonic according to water intake
glomerular filtration is regulated by?
the kidney's intrinsic or auto regulatory systems
(will maintain a +/- constatnt GFR despite changes in BP)
total blood volume
1) is filtered every 45 min.
2) the ECF is reworked in the kidneys more than 10 times/day
? % of GFR is reabsorbed
~ 99 %
active reabsorption
1) glucose
2) aminoacids
3) lactate
4) vitamins
5) most ions
up to 80% of the energy used in active transp. is to reabsorb what?
Na
transport maximum (Tm) for glucose
375 mg/min.
for protein reab.
pinocytosis
Na (gradients)
1) drags Cl and HCO3 (by electrostatic attraction)
2) water follows Na (osmotic)
proximal tubule reabsorbs
1) all glucose and AA's
2) 75-80 % of Na
3) 75-80 % of water (without ADH)
4) nearly all K and uric acid
4) K, HCO3, PO4, urea
proximal tubule secretes
1) H
2) foreign substances
tonicity of fluid in proximal tubule
isotonic
descending loop of Henle
1) water reabsorption
2) Na diffuses in
ascending loop of Henle
1) Na reabsorption (active trans.)
2) water stays in
distal tubule reabsorbs
1) Na
2) water (ADH required)
3) HCO3
distal tubule secretes
1) K
2) urea
3) H
4) NH3
5) some drugs
collecting duct
1) reabsorption of water (ADH required)
2) reabsorp./secretion of Na, K, H, NH3
water
can leave the descending limb but not the ascending limb while Na can leave the asc.
reabsorption of Na and H2O in distal and collecting tube is regulated by?
hormones and depends on body needs (if no hormones acting = No reabsorption)
ADH
increase water reabsorption at distal tubule and collecting duct
aldosterone
increase Na reab. at distal tubule and cortical collecting duct