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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ethics
Moral values, principles of conduct, rules in healthcare.
Autonomy
Free will, choice, self directed.
Basis for informed consent
Respect for patient's wishes
Nonmaleficence
Avoid harm to the patient
Beneficence
Action for the benefit of the patient or general population.
Justice
Fairness
Equal treatment for all
Informed Consent
Process of communication between patient and physician that results in patient's authorization to undergo a specific medical intervention,
-Patient must be competent
-Layman's terms
*Patient can refuse at ANY time
If patient does not speak English
Hospital translator
Family member can translate after signing HIPAA form
If patient is under 18 yrs of age
Guardian consent
If patient is incapacitated
Guardian or surrogate decision maker
Patient - Sonographer Interaction
Introduction
Wrist band ID
Verbal confirmation
Maintain patient dignity
Interpretation of Exam
Sonographers must recognize and execute a diagnostic exam.
Scope of practice does not allow interpreting results and sharing with patient.
Ergonomics
Studies the interaction between people and their work environment.
Optimize environment to prevent injury
3 out of 4 experience pain; 20% end careers
OSHA and SDMS work to prevent injury
Prevent Injury
Keep patient close
Minimum twisting, reaching, bending
Use palmar grip
Don't "break" wrist
Adjust patient schedule
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Ensure safe work practices and the use of protective equipment
Ultrasound System
Entire system:
Electronics
Transducers
Doppler
Information displayed in graphic form
Graphs velocity of blood flow
Relationships
Unrelated
Directly Related
Inversely Related
Unrelated
No association; no relationship
EX: IQ & hair color
Directly Related
One term is affected by the other
-One increases, the other increases proportionately
EX: calorie intake and weight
Inversely Related
May be reciprocals
One increases, the other decreases
EX: The more you spend, the less you save.
Metric System
Used frequently in ultrasound
Giga
Mega
kilo
hecto
deca
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
Average Propagation speed in soft tissue
1.54 mm/us
1,540 m/s
1.54 km/s
Media
A substance regarded as the means of transmission of a force or effect
Biological tissue for sound to travel through.
Reflections are processed into images.
Sound Waves
Carry energy from one location to another.
Mechanical wave or vibration
Particles in the medium move or vibrate
Cannot travel through a vacuum (no particles)
MUST travel through a medium
Acoustic waves
Sound
Travels in a straight line
Comprised of:
Compressions = zones of high pressure
Rarefactions = zones of low pressure
Identified as the rhythmical cycling or oscillations of acoustic variables.
Acoustic Variables
Measureable quantities whose values change as a sound wave propagates or moves through a medium.
In one of the 3 acoustic variables has a rhythmic fluctuation, the wave is a sound wave.
Pressure
Concentration of force within an area
Force/Area
Units: Pascals or Pa, lbs/in^2, Atmospheres or Atm, mmHg
Density
Concentration of mass within a volume
Units: kg/cm^3
Distance
Measure of particle motion
How far the particles move in response to sound
Units: cm, mm
Propagation Properties
The effects the medium has on the sound wave
Biological Effects (bioeffects)
The effects of sound waves on biological tissue
Parameters that describe sound
Period
Frequency
Propagation Speed
Amplitude
Power
Intensity
Wavelength