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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
distinguish between toxicant and toxin
a toxicant is a synthetic substance; a toxin is made by living things
chemical form is important in determining toxicity to what kinds of substances?
heavy metals
why is exposure to Cr3 ok, but not Cr6?
Cr6 is too easily absorbed while Cr3 is not
acetaminophen is metabolized by P450 to what toxic compound? What for of phase II metabolism then detoxifies this substance?
NAPQ1, glutathione conjugation
what is the order of clinical treatment for patients who overdose?
patient stabilzation, clinical evaluation, prevention of drug absorption, enhancement of drug elimination, administration of antidote, supportative care
what substances show an increase in anion gap?
alcohol, toulene, methanol, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis, paraldehyde, iron, lactic acid, ehtylene glycol, salicylate
What substances show an increase in osmolarity gap
ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, isopropanol
what compounds are not adsorbed by ingested charcoal?
small polar compounds like ethanol
when would you alkalinize urine? how do you alkalinize the urine?
to prevent reabsorption of weak acids. Use sodium bicarbonate
When would hemodialysis be used in overdose?
when the toxicant was water soluble, had a low Vd, low molecular weight, low protein binding.
hemoperfusion uses what?
cartridge of charcoal to pump blood through so the toxicant binds.
Treatment with multiple dose activated charcoal is especially useful with what kinds of toxicants?
Ones that undergo significant enterohepatic circulation
What is the antidote for acetominophin?
N-acetylcysteine
What is the antidote for methanol/ ethylene glycol, besides saturating with ethanol?
4 methylpyrazole (4MP or fomepizole)