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59 Cards in this Set

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Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, A + B -> AB
ANABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, AB -> A + B
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Starch -> Glucose
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Amino Acids -> Proteins
ANABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Triglycerides -> Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Gulcose -> Glycogen
ANABOLIC
Define all synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
ANABOLISM
Define all decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.
CATABOLISM
The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell.
Metabolism
The substance that specific enzymes can react with
Substrate
A crevice where substrate binds to an enzyme during reaction
Active Site
An energy requiring process
Anabolism
Process where energy is released
Catabolism
The interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction
Induced fit
Fills the active site of an enzymen and competes with the normal substrate for the active site
Competitive Inhibition
When a noncompetitive inhibitor attaches to another part of the enzyme this is called the?
Allosteric Site
Allosteric inhibitors play a role in a kind of biochemical control called?
Feedback inhibition
When a series of enzymes makes an end product that inhibits the first enzyme in the series, thus shutting down the entire pathway when sufficient end-product has been made.
Feedback inhibition
A transcripitional control in anabolic pathway that blocks synthesis of enzymes when end products accumulate
Enzyme repression
A transcripitional control in catabolic pathway when enzymes are produced only when their substrates are present
Enzyme Induction
Non protein groups that bind to many enzymes and make them more reactive known as "helpers"
Cofactor substrates
Large organic molecules that act to transfer functional groups, protons, or electrons from one substrate to another
Co enzymes
The protein portion of an enzyme, can not function without the "help" of a co enzyme
Apoenzyme
The conbination of a co enzyme and an apoenzyme, a functional complex
Holoenzyme
Removal of electrons from a substance
Oxidation
Addition of electrons to a substance
Reduction
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, NAD+
Oxidized
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, FADH2
Reduced
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, NADH
Reduced
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, FAD
Oxidized
What produces ATP by chemiosmosis?
Electron Transport Chain
What forms pyruvate?
Glycolysis
What produces carbon dioxide as a waste product?
TCA Cycle
What can take place in the presence or absence of oxygen?
Glycolysis
What take place on the bacterial cell membrane?
Electron Transport Chain
What takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell?
Glycolysis and TCA Cycle
What produces ATP by substrate level phosphorylation?
Glycolysis and TCA Cycle
What makes use of compounds known as cytochromes?
Electron Transport Chain
What uses oxygen directly?
Electron Transport Chain
What is responsible for the complete oxidation of pyruvate?
TCA Cycle
How many ATP molecules must be invested to begin the process of glycolysis?
2
How many ATP molecules are gained (net) in the coversion of one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate?
2
How many ATP molecules are formed/glucose during the TCA cycle?
15 per pyruvate
How many ATP molecules are produced via the Electron Transport Chain in the processing of one FADH2 molceule?
2
How many ATP molecules are produced via the Electron Transport Chain in the processing of one NADH molecule?
3
How many ATP molecules are formed by bacterial cells carrying out aerobic respiration?
38
How many ATP molecules are formed by bacterial cells carrying out fermentation?
2/per glucose
How many carbon atoms are present in Glucose?
6
How many carbon atoms are present in Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G-3-P)?
3
How many carbon atoms are present in Pyruvate?
3
How many carbon atoms are present in The Acetyl group carried by Coenzyme A?
2
How many carbon atoms are present in Oxaloacetate?
4
How many carbon atoms are present in Citrate?
6
How many carbon atoms are present in Ethanol?
2
How many carbon atoms are present in Lactic Acid?
3
How is ATP produced by Substrate Level Phosphorylation?
A Mechanism of ATP synthesis in which a high energy phosphate group is directly transferred from an intermediate in the pathway to ADP to make ATP
How is ATP produced by Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis)?
3 steps 1 e- flow thru ETC 2 A proton gradient is established 3 H+ diffuse thru an ATP synthase
List two ways in which Anaerobic Respiration differs from Aerobic Respiration
1 in Anaerobic something other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor 2 Anaerobic (Less than 38 but more than 2) does not produce as much ATP as Aerobic (36 or 38)
List two ways in which Anaerobic Respiration differs from Fermentation
Fermentation only produces 2 ATP while Anaerobic produces less than 38 but more than 2, and Fermentation can happen under either Aerobic or anaerobic conditions, while Anaerobic can only happen under Anaerobic conditions