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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The three principal parts of the cell are the _____, _____, & _____.
plasma membrane,
cytoplasm,
nucleus
_____ refers to programmed cell death, whereas _____ refers to cell death resulting from tissue injury
apoptosis,
necrosis
The fluid portion of cytoplasm is the _____.
cytosol
List three causes of cellular aging.
shortening & loss of protective
telomeres on chromosomes,

cross-link formation between
glucose & proteins

free radical formation
Duplicated chromosomes held together by centromeres are called chromatids. (T/F)
true
The sodium pump is an example of primary active transport. (T?F)
true
The basic structural unit of the plasma membrane is the _______.

a. lipid
b. integral protein
c. cholesterol molecule
d. peripheral protein
e. glycoprotein-glycolipid complex
a. lipid
Integral proteins can function in the cell membrane in all the following ways except ______.

a. as a channel
b. as a transporter
c. as a receptor
d. as an exocytosis vesicle
e. as a cell-identify marker
d. as an exocytosis vesicle
Which of the following factors influence the diffusion rate of substances through a plasma membrane?

1. concentration gradient
2. diffusion distance
3. surface area
4. size of diffusing substance
5. temperature
1, 2, 3, 4, & 5
A cell would lose water volume & shrink if placed in _________.

a. a hypertonic solution
b. a hypotonic solution
c. an isotonic solution
d. a hydrophobic solution
e. an ionic solution
a. a hypertonic solution
Which of the following statements regarding the nucleus are true?

1. Nucleoli within the nucleus are the sites of ribosome synthesis

2. Most of the cell's hereditary units, called genes, are located within the nucleus

3. The nuclear membrane is a solid, impermeable membrane

4. Protein synthesis occurs within the nucleus

5. In non-dividing cells, DNA is found in the nucleus in the form of chromatin
True Statements:
1, 2, & 5
cytoplasmic division
cytokinesis
Somatic cell division resulting in identical daughter cells.
mitosis
Reproductive cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half
meiosis
Stage of cell division when replication of DNA occurs
interphase
Stage when chromatin fibers condense & shorten to form chromosomes
prophase
Stage when centromeres split 7 sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell
anaphase
Stage when centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the center of the mitotic spindle?
metaphase
Stage when chromosomes uncoil & revert to chromatin.
telophase
DNA region that does not code for synthesis of a part of a protein.
intron
DNA region that codes for synthesis of a part of a protein
exon
enzyme that removes all introns & joins remaining exons
snRNP
nucleotide sequence, located near the beginning of a gene, that indicates where transcription begins; RNA polymerase attachment site
promoter
the copying of the DNA message onto messenger RNA
transcription
joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
ribosomal RNA
binds to amino acids & holds them in place on a ribosome to be incorporated into a protein
transfer RNA
nucleotide sequence near the end of a gene that indicates where transcription ends; releases RNA polymerase
terminator
reading a messenger RNA for protein synthesis
translation
enzyme that catalyzes transcription of DNA
RNA polymerase
a transcribed sequence of three RNA nucleotides
codon
directs synthesis of a protein
messenger RNA
membrane enclosed vesicles formed in the Golgi complex that contain strongly hydrolytic enzymes
lysosomes
network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm, providing cellular shape & organization
cytoskeleton
sites of protein synthesis
ribosomes
contain enzymes that break apart uneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins into small peptides
proteasomes
site where secretary proteins& membranes molecules are synthesized
rough ER
membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain enzymes that oxidize various organic substances
peroxisomes
microtubular structures extending from the plasma membrane & involved in the movement of materials along the cell's surface
cilia
modifies, sorts, packages, & transports molecules synthesized in the rough ER
Golgi complex
an organizing center for growth of the mitotic spindle
centrosome
function in ATP generation
mitochondria
functions in synthesizing fatty acids & steroids, helping liver cells release glucose into the bloodstream, & detoxification
smooth ER
passive transport in which a solute binds to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane & is released on the other side
facilitated diffusion
movement of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane
exocytosis
the random mixing of particles in a solution due to the kinetic energy of the particles
diffusion
transport of substances either into or out of the cell by means of a small, spherical membranous sac formed by budding off from existing membranes
vesicular transport
uses energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to change the shape of a transporter protein, which "pumps" a substance across a cellular membrane against its concentration gradient
primary active
transport
vesicular movement involving endocytosis on one side of a cell & subsequent exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell
trancytosis
type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellular fluid
pinocytosis
type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in
phagocytosis
movement of water from an area of higher to an area of lower water concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis
process that allows a cell to take specific ligands from the ECF by forming vesicles
receptor-mediated
endocytosis
indirectly uses energy obtained from the breakdown of ATP; involves symporters & antiporters
secondary active
transport