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### 119 Cards in this Set

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 If you form a concept of an object, event or characteristic by making a list of the properties that define it, you are forming a concept according to _____theory definition If you form a concept by putting together the average characteristics of an object and then seeing whether a new object matches your average object, you are forming a concept according to (a)________________ prototype If you develop an idea of a dog of average age, heigth, weight and color you have formed a ______of a dog prototype If you search for some rule, plan or strategy that results in your reaching a certain goal that is currently out of reach, you are engaging in an activity called problem solving During this activity of problem solving you are going through three states, contemplating the unsolved problem which is________________state initial During this activity of problem solving the second state is trying out various operations, rules or strategies to solve the problem which is the ______state operations During this problem solving activity your third state is reaching the solution or _____________state goal Some problems can be solved by following certain rules. If you correctly follow rules that lead to a certain solution, you are using_______ algorithms If you follow rules that reduce the number of operations or allow you to take shortcuts in solving problems, you are using heuristics When you use a combination of flexibility in thinking and reorganization of understanding to produce innovative ideas and solutions, you are engaging in creative thinking If you begin with a problem and come up with many different solutions, you are using_________thinking, which is one definition of creative thinking. divergent The opposite of this type of thinking is beginning with a problem and coming up with the one correct solution, this is called_______thinking convergent A system of symbols that we use in thinking, solving problems and communicating with others is called language There are four rules for learning and using language. How we make the meaningful sounds used by a particular language is covered by the rules of phonology Any English word can be broken down into basic sounds of consonants and vowels, which are called phonemes How we group phonemes into meaningful combinations of sounds and words is covered by the rules of morphology The smallest meaningful combination of sounds in a language is called a morpheme How we combine words to form meaningful phrases and sentences is specified by the rules of syntax or grammar how we know the meanings of words in various contexts is covered by the rules of semantics Chomsky explained that a sentence can be stated in different ways and yet have the same meaning. The actual wording of a sentence is called its surface The underlying meaning of a sentence that is not spoken but is present in the mind of the listener is called the ______structure deep To convert our ideas from surface structures into deep structures and from deep structures back into surface ones, we use _____rules transformational In acquiring language, all children go through the same four stages but at different rates. Beginning at about 6 months, a baby begins making one-syllable sounds such as "bababa" which is called babbling By about 1 year of age, a child forms_________words, which usually refer to what the child can see, hear, or feel. single At about 2 years of age, a child makes ________ which are strings of two words that express various actions(Me play) or relationships(hit ball or milk gone). two-word combinations At about 4 years of age, a child begins forming sentences, which range from three to eight words in length and indicate a growing knowledge of the rules of grammar or syntax One reason all children acquire a language in much the same order is because of genetically programmed physiological and neurological features in the brain and vocal apparatus. These are known as_____factors. innate Social interactions between the child and others, which offer opportunities for observation, imitation, and practice, are called_____factors environmental There are two theories of how you might have formed your concept of a dog and how you form concepts generally. If you form a concept of an object, event or characteristic by making a list of the properties that define it, you are using_____theory. definition If you form a concept by constructing an idea of the ideal object and then seeing whether a new object matches that idea, you are using_____theory prototype A concept is a way to group objects, events or characteristics on the basis of some common property they share. Concepts perform two important functions: They allow us to_________objects and thus better organize and store information in memory, and to identify things without_________ categorize relearning The process of searching for some rule, plan or strategy that results in reaching a certain goal that is currently out of reach is called problem solving We usually go through three state in solving problems: initial state operations state goal state We win at games by following rules. If we correctly follow a set of rules that lead to a solution, these rules are called algorithms As you gain experience with solving problems, you may use rules of thumb that reduce the number of operations or allow you to take shortcuts in solving problems; these shortcuts are called____________ heuristics In making everyday decisions, you rely on information that is more prominent or easily recalled and overlook other information that is available but less prominent or notable: this is an example of using the _________heuristic availability By studying how people eventually solve problems, psychologists have discovered a number of useful strategies, including changing our______ mental set This often involves breaking out of a pattern called______ in which we cannot see an object as having a function different from its usual one functional fixedness Another kind of thinking that is useful in solving problems is to find______which are similarities between new situations and familiar situations. analogies Still another useful strategy for solving problems is to break the problem down into a number of ___________which when completed in order will result in a solution subgoals The cases of Gregg Cox, Venus Williams, Bill Gates, Steve Lu, and Midori bring up the question of: intelligence ____________ focuses on development of psychological tests Psychometrics The two-factor theory divides intelligence into: general intelligence specific abilities Most psychologists believe that ___ is what current intelligence tests measure. "g" Jake, an extraordinarily gifted athlete, is asked to take an intelligence test that measures "g." Will his athletic ability come through on this intelligence test? no - intelligence tests do not measure "s" Gardner argues that standard IQ tests measure: spatial intelligence and verbal intelligence Jake, an extraordinarily gifted athlete, is asked to take an intelligence test that is based on Gardner's multiple intelligence theory. Will his athletic ability come through on this intelligence test? yes - this type of intelligence test measures body movement Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory focuses on the three: ways of gathering and processing information Based upon observations, Galton concluded that intelligence could be measured by assessing: head size The correlation between brain size and intelligence is about +.35 Who developed the first standardized intelligence test Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon The intelligence quotient (IQ) score is computed by dividing a child's _______ by the child's ________ and multiplying by 100. mental age; chronological age Harrison is going on a blind date with Nancy. He knows a limited amount about her, including her IQ. She has an IQ of 100. What does that tell Harrison about Nancy? Nancy has average cognitive abilities Your friend took an intelligence test. Knowing something about intelligence, you ask her to describe the experience. She says, "There were about 15 other people taking the test at the same time. I think it was called the Wechsler Test." What she correct? No - the Wechsler tests are given on a one-to-one basis, not in a group The Wechsler scales of intelligence are administered: one-on-one Jerry has problems with concentration and is a poor test taker. With which part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale will he have the most difficulty? performance scale The oil dip stick in your car actually measures how much oil there is in the car's engine. Therefore, the dip stick is a _______ measure. valid According to Ed Zigler, academic performance depends upon three factors. What are they? cognitive abilities, achievement, motivation Eric is a good friend of yours, but you really don't know why. Sometimes you can count on him for support or to do something, and other times he forgets or comes up with some excuse. If your friend was a psychological test, he would lack: reliability Why is there an overall decrease in performance on IQ scores from age 20 to 74? changes in psychological and physiological functioning In a normal distribution of IQ scores, what percentage of people have a score between 85 and 115? 68.26% In addition to intelligence, the definition of mental retardation now includes the notion of: adaptive skills Of the three levels of retardation presented in your textbook, which is the most common in retarded individuals? borderline mental retardation IQ tests are ___________predictors of success in school moderately good Why would a question such as, "Explain what you would do if one speaker of your stereo system stopped working?" not be a good item for an IQ test? Not everyone can afford to own a stereo. Assume that you are taking an intelligence test developed by psychologists living in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. One question asks you to define "holy wah" and another asks you how to make "pasties." You could make the argument that this test has: cultural bias An ecological psychologist is most likely to subscribe to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence The nature-nurture question contemplates the contribution of _________ and ____________ to the development of intelligence genetic factors; environmental factors What happens to the genetic influence on intelligence throughout life? It remains relatively constant What factor has the highest heritability score memory An "environmental factor" explanation for the racial differences in IQ scores would focus on: poverty Laws to regulate immigration, such as the Immigration Law of 1924, were often based upon_____intelligence ranking of European races Yerkes' PET scans provide information on the brain's blood flow According to research, Head Start children, when they became adolescents were more likely to: be in their age-appropriate class Dr. Jones, a psychologist working for the government, is evaluating the effectiveness of Head Start. In evaluating its effectiveness, we would use IQ scores, but also measures of three things, what are they? social, emotional, and psychological benefits According to the textbook, are Head Start and other intervention programs a good deal for the American taxpayer? Yes - intervention programs can stop the cycle of poverty The examples presented in the introduction of the module illustrate the issue of: the definition of intelligence If your cousin told you she was in psychometrics, what would she be most likely doing in her career? developing psychological tests measuring personality traits As the class ends, your psych professor says, "Next time, we will discuss an approach to intelligence that measures the cognitive factors that make up intelligence." Since you have already read the assigned reading, you know that she is talking about the _______ approach to intelligence psychometric Dottie is very good at making art projects and excels at cooking. Spearman would classify these two skills as: "s" General intelligence, or g, correlates positively with: academic performance Imagine this: You are a public relations manager and are writing an advertising campaign for Howard Gardner's multiple-intelligence theory. What would be the best "slogan" for the campaign? There's more than one way to be smart." An advantage of the multiple intelligence approach is that it: recognizes people with different types of intelligence The triarchic theory focuses on the three aspects of intelligence. Name them analytical, problem solving and practical Gardner is to multiple intelligence as Sternberg is to _______. information processing Francis Galton attempted to determine the relationship between ____________ and _________. head size; students' grade point averages Your cousin says that males are more intelligence because their brains are larger. What is your reasoned response? There is no significant gender difference in intelligence. The world's first standardized intelligence test was introduced by Binet and Simon in: 1905 On an intelligence test, a 5-year-old child is able to answer the questions that the average 6-year-old can answer, but is not able to answer the 7-year-old questions. The child's IQ would be: 120 John is going on a blind date with Michelle. He knows a limited amount about her, including her IQ. She has an IQ of 120. What does that tell John about Michelle? Michelle has above average cognitive abilities The current version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale consists of items which assess: verbal and performance skills Dr. Howarth, a psychologist, is giving an intelligence test to a subject. The subject takes a number of subtests including information, comprehension, arithmetic, and digit span. These subtests are for: verbal scale of the Wechsler You have recently had your handwriting analyzed to measure your intelligence. Much to your surprise, handwriting analysis is usually no better than a good guess If a calculator actually subtracted numbers when you pushed the addition button, you would question the _________ of the addition button because it doesn't do what it is supposed to do validity Ten times your sister jumps on the scale and ten times it reads 115 pounds. "Wow, " she exclaims, "I'm taller than the average American woman!" Her results are: reliable but not valid Allison scores a 29 the first time she takes her driver's test, and she scores a 28 the second time she takes the test. In this case, the driver's test can be said to have: reliability A normal distribution is one in which the majority of scores fall in the ______ middle An IQ of 145 or higher suggested a person who is gifted. A score of below 70 suggestions mild retardation. One use of IQ tests is to provide categories of mental abilities Ten times your sister jumps on the scale and ten times it reads 115 pounds. "Wow, " she exclaims, "I'm taller than the average American woman!" Her results are: reliable but not valid A ten-year-old child suffered brain damage when he fell off his skateboard. What type of mental retardation might follow his accident? organic retardation If you know Ricardo's IQ score, how easily could you predict his academic performance? difficult - there is moderate correlation between IQ and academic performance Terman's longitudinal study followed gifted children with IQ scores from 130-200 A lawsuit brought against the San Francisco school system on behalf of all black schoolchildren in the district was based on the finding that a disproportionately high percentage of black children were enrolled in classes for the mentally retarded You are impressed with a man in your town who can fix anything. He is a high school dropout and he claims that he is not very "book smart." Who would be most interested in studying this man? ecological psychologist Which family relationship shares the most genes in common? identical twins reared together The results of adoption studies have suggested that intelligence can be improved by improving environmental factors The concept of a reaction range indicates that intelligence may increase or decrease as a result of the environment A task force of the American Psychological Association said that the development of an individual's intelligence is significantly influenced by: genetic factors Yerkes concluded that the average mental age of white American adults was 13 years When examining the brains of people engaged in solving verbal or spatial problems, researchers found the _______general areas of the brain were activated same Studies of the effectiveness of intervention programs like Head Start suggest that even if differences in IQ fade over time, there are other _____________ that justify continuing these programs social benefits One approach to measuring intelligence focuses on quantifying cognitive factors or abilities that are involved in intellectual performance; this is called the_________approach psychometric Spearman used the psychometric approach to develop a two-factor theory of intelligence: one factor is "g" or _______; the second factor is "s" or _________ general intelligence; specific abilities In comparison to Spearman's two-factor approach, Howard Gardner's theory says that there are seven kinds of ______, such as verbal skills, math skills, spatial skills, and movement skills intelligence Another approach to measuring intelligence studies how people gather information to solve problems or acquire information; this is called the _____ approach. information-processing An example of this approach is Robert Sternberg's ________ theory of intelligence triarchic Albert Binet developed an intelligence test that estimated intellectual progress by comparing a child's score on an intelligence test to the scores of average children of the same age. Binet called this concept ________ mental age Lewis Terman revised Binet's intelligence test, and the most significant change he made was to develop a formula to compute a single score that represents a person's______ IQ or intelligence quotient The formula for Terman's IQ score is IQ=________age divided by ___age, times________ mental; chronological; 100