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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory
a set of interconnected statements or propositions that explain how two or more events or factors are related to one another.
Scientific Theory
logically sound, empirically verifiable
Inductive theory
theory developed after systematic observation
Deductive theory
developed and tested through empirical
Parsimony
simplicity of its structure, few assumptions, few explanations, considered superior
Scope
sometimes called pervasiveness, the range of phenomena that a theory can explain
Accuracy
extent to which the theory matches empirical reality, allows us to make correct predictions about the occurrence of the phenomenon in question.
Social Sciences – Level of accuracy?
seldom approaches the level of accuracy of the those developed in these other fields
Scientific predictions derived from theories are…
probabilistic - not absolute, observe a general pattern
Paradigms
school of thought within a discipline, is always influenced by researcher’s values, research must remain objective during the data analysis
Paradigm provides the scientist with a model for (List 3)
choosing the problems to be analyzed, the methods for analyzing them, the theoretical framework for explaining them
Scientific Revolution
inadequate paradigm is replaced, promotes advancements in a discipline
Three paradigms in criminology
Classical, Positivist, Marxist/Radical
Classical Theory
Beccaria - On Crimes and Punishment, Model for penal reform, Punishment is Deterrence
Successful Punishment includes:
Swift, Certain, Proportionate , Appropriate
Punishment should be appropriate to the "seriousness" of the crime. List three categories of seriousness:
crimes against state and representatives, injure security/property of individuals, disrupt public peace
Beccaria opposed the death penalty because?
no deterrent effect, leaves no permanent impression on them
Bentham and Becarria's work was referred to as:
"administrative and legal criminology"
Neo-Classical Theory
Revision of classical theory to include mitigating factors
Rational choice theory
Crime Specific, different crimes - meet different needs - in different offenders
Choice structuring
offender characteristics, combined with offense characteristics, shape criminal decisions
Types of criminal decisions:
Involvement decisions - multistage, made over extended period of time, Event decisions - made quickly
Positive Theory
Positivists assume determinism - offender's choices are limited
Marxist Social Theory
law as well as crime reflect the economy of society. "A society organized into social classes is inherently unequal", Marxist theory "sees criminal behavior as a rational response to dehumanizing conditions."
Three ways Marx and Engels viewed crime
Lumpenproletariat -"dangerous class",
Primitive rebellion thesis - crime is a form of revolt against ruling class/capitalist system, Demoralization - living as a "have-not" in the capitalist system